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A reexamination of Sport Motivation Scale-II in eSports spectatorship: Cross-validation of intrinsic motivation and integrated motivation

journal contribution
posted on 22.11.2022, 13:36 authored by Xiuqi Zhu, Do Young PyunDo Young Pyun, Argyro Elisavet ManoliArgyro Elisavet Manoli, Zhiyong Men

Although the discriminant validity issue between intrinsic and integrated motivations has been reported in several self-determination theory (SDT) studies, limited effort is seen on the investigation of this issue. This gap is calling for further studies, especially with increasing numbers of motivation studies applying the SDT in a new area, eSports. To fill the gap, using Sport Motivation Scale-II, this study assesses such discriminant validity of intrinsic and integrated motivations in the eSports context. Data (N = 425) were collected from eSports spectators and analyzed using CFA and a double cross-validation technique. The CFA showed that a correlation between two factors was very high (.995). The squared correlation coefficient (.99) was higher than the AVE values of intrinsic (.63) and integrated (.62) motivations, failing to discriminate each other. It also supported the one-factor model (AIC = 104.752 < 107.038; ECVI = .247 < .252) over the two-factor model in terms of the adequacy of the model. Thecross-validation results from two rounds of CVI test (.64 and .51 for one factor model; .68 and .52 for two-factor model) both supported the one-factor model. Therefore, when measuring eSports spectators’ motivation, their regulation is better explained when intrinsic motivation and integrated motivation are considered the same. This study provides a new perspective on the existing discussion and serves as a reference for future eSports researchers in this subject matter.



  • Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences

Published in

International Journal of Sport Psychology


Edizioni Luigi Pozzi srl


AM (Accepted Manuscript)

Rights holder

© Edizioni Luigi Pozzi

Publisher statement

This paper was accepted for publication in the journal International Journal of Sport Psychology and the definitive published version is available at [insert DOI link]

Acceptance date







Dr Doyoung Pyun. Deposit date: 17 November 2022