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A review of non-precious metal single atom confined nanomaterials in different structural dimensions (1D–3D) as highly active oxygen redox reaction electrocatalysts
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The non-precious-metal single atoms (NPM-SAs) confined nanomaterials with maximum metal atom utilization have recently attracted particular interests, providing opportunities for exploiting novel heterogeneous electrocatalysts with low cost and high efficiency. The applications of non-precious-metal single atom catalysts (NPM-SACs) have been extensively developed in electrochemical energy technologies such as fuel cells, metal-air batteries, and hydrogen production via water splitting. The NPM-SACs can be confined on substrates with various structures and dimensions from 1D to 3D. However, the role of the structural dimensions of substrates has not been critically summarized. In this review, recent advances in NPM-SACs such as facile synthesis, characterizations, performance in catalyzing oxygen redox reactions, and related applications are highlighted through a focus on different dimensional substrates (1D, 2D, and 3D). The general fabrication strategies and the catalytic mechanism of NPM-SACs in oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) are extensively discussed. Moreover, the opportunities and challenges in this emerging field are featured on the basis of its current development.
National Natural Science Foundation of China, NSFC, via project numbers 21875200
UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, EPSRC, via grant numbers EP/R012164/2 and EP/I013229/1
- Aeronautical, Automotive, Chemical and Materials Engineering
- Chemical Engineering