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Advances and challenges in thyroid cancer: the interplay of genetic modulators, targeted therapies, and AI-driven approaches

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posted on 2024-02-05, 14:21 authored by S Bhattacharya, RK Mahato, S Singh, GK Bhatti, Sarabjit MastanaSarabjit Mastana, JS Bhatti
Thyroid cancer continues to exhibit a rising incidence globally, predominantly affecting women. Despite stable mortality rates, the unique characteristics of thyroid carcinoma warrant a distinct approach. Differentiated thyroid cancer, comprising most cases, is effectively managed through standard treatments such as thyroidectomy and radioiodine therapy. However, rarer variants, including anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, necessitate specialized interventions, often employing targeted therapies. Although these drugs focus on symptom management, they are not curative. This review delves into the fundamental modulators of thyroid cancers, encompassing genetic, epigenetic, and non-coding RNA factors while exploring their intricate interplay and influence. Epigenetic modifications directly affect the expression of causal genes, while long non-coding RNAs impact the function and expression of micro-RNAs, culminating in tumorigenesis. Additionally, this article provides a concise overview of the advantages and disadvantages associated with pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapeutic interventions in thyroid cancer. Furthermore, with technological advancements, integrating modern software and computing into healthcare and medical practices has become increasingly prevalent. Artificial intelligence and machine learning techniques hold the potential to predict treatment outcomes, analyze data, and develop personalized therapeutic approaches catering to patient specificity. In thyroid cancer, cutting-edge machine learning and deep learning technologies analyze factors such as ultrasonography results for tumor textures and biopsy samples from fine needle aspirations, paving the way for a more accurate and effective therapeutic landscape in the near future.

Funding

Science and Engineering Research Board, India (EEQ/2020/000188)

Indian Council of Medical Research (Grant, No. BMI/12(08)/2021-6329)

History

School

  • Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences

Published in

Life Sciences

Volume

332

Publisher

Elsevier

Version

  • VoR (Version of Record)

Rights holder

© The Author(s)

Publisher statement

This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)

Acceptance date

2023-09-18

Publication date

2023-09-20

Copyright date

2023

ISSN

0024-3205

eISSN

1879-0631

Language

  • en

Depositor

Deposit date: 31 January 2024

Article number

122110

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