Loughborough University
James et al. Berries snack and appetite. Finally accepted version..pdf (334.86 kB)
Download file

An afternoon snack of berries reduces subsequent energy intake compared to an isoenergetic confectionary snack

Download (334.86 kB)
journal contribution
posted on 2015-09-22, 13:50 authored by Lewis JamesLewis James, Mark FunnellMark Funnell, Samantha Milner
Observational studies suggest that increased fruit and vegetable consumption can contribute to weight maintenance and facilitate weight loss when substituted for other energy dense foods. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of berries on acute appetite and energy intake. Twelve unrestrained pre-menopausal women (age 21±2y; BMI 26.6±2.6kgm-2; body fat 23±3%) completed a familiarisation trial and two randomised experimental trials. Subjects arrived in the evening (~5pm) and consumed an isoenergetic snack (65kcal) of mixed berries (BERRY) or confectionary sweets (CONF). Sixty min later, subjects consumed a homogenous pasta test meal until voluntary satiation, and energy intake was quantified. Subjective appetite (hunger, fullness, desire to eat and prospective food consumption) was assessed throughout trials, and for 120min after the test meal. Energy intake was less (P<0.001) after consumption of the BERRY snack (691±146kcal) than after the CONF snack (824±172kcal); whilst water consumption was similar (P=0.925). There were no trial (P>0.095) or interaction (P>0.351) effects for any subjective appetite ratings. Time taken to eat the BERRY snack (4.05±1.12min) was greater (P<0.001) than the CONF snack 0.93±0.33min). This study demonstrates that substituting an afternoon confectionary snack with mixed berries decreased subsequent energy intake at dinner, but did not affect subjective appetite. This dietary strategy could represent a simple method for reducing daily energy intake and aiding weight management.



  • Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences

Published in





132 - 137


JAMES, L.J., FUNNELL, M.P. and MILNER, S., 2015. An afternoon snack of berries reduces subsequent energy intake compared to an isoenergetic confectionary snack. Appetite, 95 pp.132-137.


© Elsevier


  • AM (Accepted Manuscript)

Publisher statement

This work is made available according to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) licence. Full details of this licence are available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

Publication date



This paper was accepted for publication in the journal Appetite and the definitive published version is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2015.07.005






  • en