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An analysis of cascade-aerated facultative waste stabilisation ponds in the United Kingdom

journal contribution
posted on 2013-07-05, 13:24 authored by Bernhard Rinnhofer, Michael Smith
This paper examines the performance of cascade-aerated facultative ponds in a waste stabilisation pond (WSP) installation in the United Kingdom. The pond system is privately owned and treats wastewater from a conference centre with a population equivalent between 20 and 40. A snapshot analysis investigates the removal efficiency of BOD, COD, SS, FC and nutrients. Further, the oxygen supply through ‘flow form’ cascades is examined, and the DO concentrations, surface loads and retention times are discussed. The results show a very high removal of BOD, COD and SS; and nutrient removal is satisfactory. An unusual finding is that the FC removal efficiency is almost two log units better than for a common maturation pond. This is possibly attributable to the high cascade flow, where wastewater is exposed to the damaging effects of sunlight (photooxidation).



  • Architecture, Building and Civil Engineering

Research Unit

  • Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC)


RINNHOFER, B. and SMITH, M.D., 2011. An analysis of cascade-aerated facultative waste stabilisation ponds in the United Kingdom. Water and Environment Journal, 25 (2), pp. 290 - 295.


© The Authors. Water and Environment Journal © CIWEM


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Closed access. This article was published in the journal, Water and Environment Journal [© The Authors. Water and Environment Journal © CIWEM] and the definitive version is available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-6593.2010.00228.x




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