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Analysis of multi-stream fuel injector flow using zonal proper orthogonal decomposition

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posted on 14.06.2021, 13:55 authored by Daniel ButcherDaniel Butcher, Adrian SpencerAdrian Spencer
The 3-component velocity distribution of two lean-burn gas turbine fuel injectors are measured at a planar location near and parallel to the injector outlet. The two injectors are nominally the same design, but one features blocked central passages to study the effects of the presence of multi-streams and reveal the single stream characteristics embedded within the multi-stream configuration. Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry is used in an isothermal, non-reacting water analogue flow facility at an engine relevant Reynolds number. The velocity data is analysed using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and the work introduces the concept of Zonal POD. This is the splitting of the velocity field into zones prior to the calculation of POD modes to better identify prominent structures and features associated with each zone. Because modes are sorted by the area averaged energy contribution, zoning of a velocity field of interest may change the individual modes and will almost certainly change their order for anything other than trivial flow fields. Analysis of ensemble average and velocity fluctuation profiles reveals a radial shift outboard of the mains flow with the presence of the pilot as well as a general increase in RMS across the intermediate region between the pilot and mains flows. Analysis of POD temporal coefficients in the frequency domain reveals a low-frequency peak is evident in the mains flow region, but which may be affected by the presence of pilot flow. Furthermore, application of the ZPOD technique results in a closer representation of the velocity data for a given number of modes. This shows the behaviour of the unsteady pilot flow and reveals that a significant proportion of the fluctuating energy, RMS, is caused by this characteristic.


This research was undertaken at The National Centre for Combustion and Aerothermal Technology (NCCAT), Loughborough University within the Rolls-Royce University Technology Center (UTC) in Combustion System Aerothermal Processes. It was funded by Innovate UK and Aerospace Technology Institute (ATI) as part of the Enhanced Low Emission Combustion Technology (ELECT) program.



  • Aeronautical, Automotive, Chemical and Materials Engineering


  • Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering

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This is an Open Access Article. It is published by MDPI under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence (CC BY 4.0). Full details of this licence are available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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Deposit date: 14 June 2021

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