Barrel swirl breakdown in spark-ignition engines: insights from particle image velocimetry measurements
journal contributionposted on 12.06.2009, 11:11 by Mark Reeves, Martin J. Haste, Colin Garner, Neil A. Halliwell
Particle image velocimetry (PIV) has been used here to study the formation and breakdown of barrel swirl ('tumble') in a production geometry, four-stroke, four-valve, motored, spark-ignition, optically accessed internal combustion (IC) engine. The barrel swirl ratio (BSR) of the cylinder head could be enhanced by means of a port face inducer gasket so that the flow processes taking place at low and high swirl ratios could be investigated conveniently. Double-exposed images from planes both parallel and perpendicular to the cylinder axis were recorded at selected crank angles through the induction and compression strokes at a motored engine speed of 1000 r/min, with a wide open throttle, for both high and low BSR cases. The recorded images were interrogated by digital autocorrelation to give two-dimensional maps of instantaneous velocity. In both high and low BSR cases, a barrel or tumbling vortex motion is generated during induction, which is shown to persist throughout the majority of the compression stroke. The details of barrel swirl formation during induction and its subsequent modification during compression, however, differ strongly between the two cases. These differences can be explained qualitatively in terms of two main events; the first being competition during induction between vortices of unequal strength and the second being competition between the large-scale swirl motion and the local flow field generated by piston motion during compression. In the low barrel swirl case, significant dissipation occurs owing to these interactions and consequently the large-scale motion exhibits lower mean velocities and undergoes significant distortion. In the case of high BSR, the competition effects are minimized and a single ordered vertical vortex exhibiting high velocity magnitudes is observed to avoid piston induced distortion. It then moves into the apex of the pent roof combustion chamber where it survives as a single ordered vortex until at least 40° crank angle (CA) before top dead centre (TDC). Limitations and developments of the PIV technique are discussed.
- Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering