Loughborough University
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Biocompatibility of hydroxyethyl cellulose/glycine/RuO2 composite scaffolds for neural-like cells

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journal contribution
posted on 2022-04-28, 11:53 authored by Mostafa Mabrouk, Enas Ismail, Hanan Beherei, Mahmoud T. Abo-Elfadl, Zeinab A Salem, Diganta DasDiganta Das, Nermeen AbuBakr

Fabrication of scaffolds for nerve regeneration is one of the most challenging topics in regenerative medicine at the moment, which is also interlinked with the development of biocompatible substrates for cells growth. This work is targeted towards the development of green biomaterial composite scaffolds for nerve cell culture applications. Hybrid scaffolds of hydroxyethyl cellulose/glycine (HEC/Gly) composite doped with different concentrations of green ruthenium oxide (RuO2) were synthesized and characterized via a combination of different techniques. X-rays diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses showed a crystalline nature for all the samples with noticeable decrease in the peak intensity of the fabricated scaffolds as compared to that for pure glycine. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) tests revealed an increase in the vibrational bands of the synthesized RuO2 containing scaffolds which are related to the functional groups of the natural plant extract (Aspalathuslinearis) used for RuO2 nanoparticles (NPs) synthesis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results revealed a 3D porous structure of the scaffolds with variant features attributed to the concentration of RuO2 NPs in the scaffold. The compressive test results recorded an enhancement in mechanical properties of the fabricated scaffolds (up to 8.55MPa), proportionally correlated to increasing the RuO2 NPs concentration in HEC/Gly composite scaffold. Our biocompatibility tests revealed that the composite scaffolds doped with 1 and 2ml of RuO2 demonstrated the highest proliferation percentages (152.2 and 135.6%) compared to control. Finally, the SEM analyses confirmed the impressive cells attachments and differentiation onto the scaffold surfaces as evidenced by the presence of many neuron-like cells with apparent cell bodies and possessing few short neurite-like processes. The presence of RuO2 and glycine was due to their extraordinary biocompatibility due to their cytoprotective and regenerative effects. Therefore, we conclude that these scaffolds are promising for accommodation and growth of neural-like cells.


National Research Centre (NRC), Egypt (grant reference number 12020220)



  • Aeronautical, Automotive, Chemical and Materials Engineering


  • Chemical Engineering

Published in

International Journal of Biological Macromolecules




Part B


2097 - 2108




  • AM (Accepted Manuscript)

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© Elsevier

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This paper was accepted for publication in the journal International Journal of Biological Macromolecules and the definitive published version is available at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.04.190

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Dr Diganta Das. Deposit date: 26 April 2022

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