Loughborough University
Browse
2023 CdTe based thin film photovoltaics_ Recent advances, current challenges.pdf (12.71 MB)

CdTe-based thin film photovoltaics: recent advances, current challenges and future prospects

Download (12.71 MB)
journal contribution
posted on 2023-06-27, 11:18 authored by Michael A Scarpulla, Brian McCandless, Adam B Phillips, Yanfa Yan, Michael J Heben, Colin Wolden, Gang Xiong, Wyatt K Metzger, Dan Mao, Dmitry Krasikov, Igor Sankin, Sachit Grover, Amit Munshi, Walajabad Sampath, James R Sites, Alexandra Bothwell, David Albin, Matthew O Reese, Alessandro Romeo, Marco Nardone, Robert Klie, Michael WallsMichael Walls, Thomas Fiducia, Ali AbbasAli Abbas, Sarah M Hayes

Cadmium telluride (CdTe)-based cells have emerged as the leading commercialized thin film photovoltaic technology and has intrinsically better temperature coefficients, energy yield, and degradation rates than Si technologies. More than 30 GW peak (GWp) of CdTe-based modules are installed worldwide, multiple companies are in production, modules are shipping at up to 18.6% efficiency, and lab cell efficiency is above 22%. We review developments in the science and technology that have occurred over approximately the past decade. These achievements were enabled by manufacturing innovations and scaling module production, as well as maximizing photocurrent through window layer optimization and alloyed CdSexTe1-x (CST) absorbers. Improved chlorine passivation processes, film microstructure, and serendipitous Se defect passivation significantly increased minority carrier lifetime. Efficiencies >22% have been realized for both Cu and As doped CST-based cells. The path to further efficiency gains hinges primarily on increasing open circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF) through innovations in materials, fabrication methods, and device stacks. Replacing the longstanding Cu doping with As doping is resulting in better module stability and is being translated to large-scale production. To realize 25% efficiency and >1 V Voc, research and development is needed to increase the minority carrier lifetime beyond 100 ns, reduce grain boundary and interface recombination, and tailor band diagrams at the front and back interfaces. Many of these goals have been realized separately however combining them together using scalable manufacturing approaches has been elusive to date. We review these achievements and outstanding opportunities for this remarkable photovoltaic technology.

Funding

Doped emitters to unlock lowest cost solar electricity

Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council

Find out more...

History

School

  • Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering

Research Unit

  • Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST)

Published in

Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells

Volume

255

Publisher

Elsevier

Version

  • VoR (Version of Record)

Rights holder

© The Authors

Publisher statement

This is an Open Access Article. It is published by Elsevier under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International Licence (CC BY-NC-ND). Full details of this licence are available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

Acceptance date

2023-03-09

Publication date

2023-03-28

Copyright date

2023

ISSN

0927-0248

eISSN

1879-3398

Language

  • en

Depositor

Prof Michael Walls. Deposit date: 23 June 2023

Article number

112289

Usage metrics

    Loughborough Publications

    Keywords

    Exports

    RefWorks
    BibTeX
    Ref. manager
    Endnote
    DataCite
    NLM
    DC