Comparison of centre of gravity and centre of pressure patterns in the golf swing (IR).pdf (613.29 kB)
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Comparison of centre of gravity and centre of pressure patterns in the golf swing

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journal contribution
posted on 25.11.2016, 12:00 by Aimee MearsAimee Mears, Jonathan RobertsJonathan Roberts, Pui W. Kong, Steph ForresterSteph Forrester
Analysing the centre of pressure (COP) and centre of gravity (COG) could reveal stabilising strategies used by golfers throughout the golf swing. This study identified and compared golfers’ COP and COG patterns throughout the golf swing in medial–lateral (ML) and anterior–posterior (AP) directions using principal component analysis (PCA) and examined their relationship to clubhead velocity. Three-dimensional marker trajectories were collected using Vicon motion analysis and force plate data from two Kistler force plates for 22 low-handicap golfers during drives. Golfers’ COG and COP were expressed as a percentage distance between their feet. PCA was performed on COG and COP in ML and AP directions. Relationships between principal component (PC) scores were examined using Pearson correlation and regression analysis used to examine the relationship with clubhead velocity. ML COP movements varied in magnitude (PC1), rate of change and timing (PC2 and PC3). The COP and COG PC1 scores were strongly correlated in both directions (ML: r = 0.90, P < .05; AP: r = 0.81, P < .05). Clubhead velocity, explained by three PCs (74%), related to timing and rate of change in COPML near downswing (PC2 and PC3) and timing of COGML late backswing (PC2). The relationship between COPML and COGML PC1 scores identified extremes of COP and COG patterns in golfers and could indicate a golfer’s dynamic balance. Golfers with earlier movement of COP to the front foot (PC2) and rate of change (PC3) patterns in ML COP, prior to the downswing, may be more likely to generate higher clubhead velocity.



  • Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering

Published in

European Journal of Sport Science


1 - 11


SMITH, A.C. ... et al., 2017. Comparison of centre of gravity and centre of pressure patterns in the golf swing. European Journal of Sport Science, 17(2), pp.168-178.


© European College of Sport Science


AM (Accepted Manuscript)

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This work is made available according to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) licence. Full details of this licence are available at:

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This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published in European Journal of Sport Science on 13 October 2016, available online: