1-s2.0-S0306261920301124-main.pdf (1.7 MB)
Download file

Contracted energy flexibility characteristics of communities: Analysis of a control strategy for demand response

Download (1.7 MB)
journal contribution
posted on 30.01.2020, 12:23 by Rami El-GeneidyRami El-Geneidy, Bianca HowardBianca Howard
Increasing energy system flexibility through demand-side measures will help meet challenges brought by the transition to a low-carbon energy system. Through participation in demand response programmes, buildings can act as sources of contracted flexibility. Contracted flexibility, in this work, is defined as energy flexibility that is supplied to fulfil a set of contractual terms that define when and how demand modifications are delivered and under which incentives or penalties. This paper identifies the factors affecting contracted energy flexibility potential of homes implemented with a model-predictive control strategy designed to deliver a simplified but yet generalisable incentive-based demand response scheme. The control strategy was implemented in centralised and naive-decentralised architectures using co-simulations to observe interaction of the controller with an English community of 30 homes fitted with air-source heat pumps. The results showed that the control strategy was able to deliver sustained demand reductions without violating comfort by preheating the homes prior to demand response periods, if conditions were suitable. Preheating the homes increased overall energy consumption and, in some cases, caused a peak in electricity demand prior to the DR period. Modifying factors of control operation, like the coordination strategy, magnitudes of penalties, control constraints and notice period between call for demand reduction and its delivery, were shown to affect the ability to deliver demand reductions. The contracted flexibility potential of the community was shown to be characterised by the buildings and their systems, the physical and contractual environment, and behaviour and preferences of the occupants.


EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training in Energy Demand (LoLo) : EP/L01517X/1

F-Tec: Flexibile timing of Energy Consumption in communities : EP/S001670/1



  • Architecture, Building and Civil Engineering

Published in

Applied Energy






VoR (Version of Record)

Rights holder

© The Authors

Publisher statement

This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/BY/4.0/).

Acceptance date


Publication date


Copyright date







Mr Rami El Geneidy. Deposit date: 30 January 2020

Article number