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Current water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions in selected schools in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

journal contribution
posted on 13.12.2021, 11:31 by Meleruchi Wami, Julie Fisher, Scott Akpila, Tanja RaduTanja Radu
Access to improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) in school contributes to an enabling learning environment and quality education, especially in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs). This study investigated WASH conditions in 20 selected secondary schools in Rivers State, Nigeria with a total of 806 respondents. Results showed limited levels of WASH services according to the JMP ladder, with at least 30 percent of schools having limited water and sanitation services and no hygiene services, and less than 10 percent of students reporting water and soap for handwashing being always available. The WHO recommendations on the student-to-toilet ratio (STR) were not met in most schools. This study provides new insights on WASH in schools using Rivers State, Nigeria as a case study and finds the current WASH conditions to be inadequate. Furthermore, the study provides transferable lessons having wider application across selected LMICs and can be used by stakeholders to better apply WASH interventions in schools.


Total E&P Nigeria under the community educational assistance program: Rebisi Heritage Foundation scheme



  • Architecture, Building and Civil Engineering

Research Unit

  • Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC)

Published in

International Development Planning Review


Liverpool University Press


AM (Accepted Manuscript)

Publisher statement

This paper was accepted for publication in the journal International Development Planning Review and the definitive published version is available at ....

Acceptance date









Dr Tanja Radu. Deposit date: 13 December 2021