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Detection of flexibly bound adsorbate using the nonlinear response of quartz crystal resonator driven at high oscillation amplitude

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posted on 2017-11-15, 15:09 authored by Shilpa O. Khobragade, Samantha Swarbrick, Violeta-Tincuta Gruia, Igor Efimov, Adriana Ispas, Victor P. Ostanin, Andreas Bund, Sourav GhoshSourav Ghosh
Flexibly bound heavy adsorbates as antibodies, biomarkers, microbeads, bacteria do not produce response at quartz resonators accounted by their mass alone, which complicates their acoustic detection. To resolve this problem, an anharmonic detection technique (ADT) has been developed. It generates higher harmonics by applying a high voltage (0.7–10 V) fundamental frequency excitation to 14.3 MHz AT-cut quartz crystal. Due to non-linearity the parameters of generated oscillations depend on the amplitude A of the applied signal, being proportional to A 2 for the fundamental resonance frequency and mainly to A 3 for the amplitude of generated 3rd harmonics. The coefficients of proportionality depend on number of attached particles, but not on their mass and can be calculated from the phenomenological model based on Duffing equation with damping. The model was tested in liquids of various viscosity, on composite layer including polymer film with deposited gold nanoparticles and in electrochemical mode for E.-coli adsorption.


S.S had her PhD studentship funded by EPSRC grant number is EP/F500491/1. The project was funded by EU FP7 grant NOROSENSOR and partially by EPSRC Bridging the Gap in Antimicrobial Resistance grant (EP/M027341/1).



  • Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering

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Electrochimica Acta




424 - 429


KHOBRAGADE, S. ... et al, 2017. Detection of flexibly bound adsorbate using the nonlinear response of quartz crystal resonator driven at high oscillation amplitude. Electrochimica Acta, 252, pp.424-429


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This work is made available according to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) licence. Full details of this licence are available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

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This paper was published in the journal Electrochimica Acta and the definitive published version is available at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2017.09.027.




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