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Development of an expert based ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM map to AIS 2005 update 2008

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posted on 07.12.2020, 10:16 by Kathryn L. Loftis, Janet P. Price, Patrick J. Gillich, Kathy J. Cookman, Amy L. Brammer, Trish St. Germain, Jo BarnesJo Barnes, Vickie Graymire, Donna A. Nayduch, Christine Read-Allsopp, Katherine Baus, Patsye Stanley, Maureen Brennan
Objective: This paper describes how maps were developed from the Clinical Modifications of the 9th and 10th Revisions of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) to the Abbreviated Injury Scale 2005 Update 2008 (AIS08). The development of the mapping methodology is described, with discussion of the major assumptions used in the process to map ICD codes to AIS severities. There were many intricacies to developing the maps, since the two coding systems, ICD and AIS, were developed for different purposes and contain unique classification structures to meet these purposes. Methods: Experts in ICD and AIS analyzed the rules and coding guidelines of both injury coding schemes to develop rules for mapping ICD injury codes to the AIS08. This involved subject matter expertise, detailed knowledge of anatomy, and an in-depth understanding of injury terms and definitions as applied in both taxonomies. The official ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM versions (injury sections) were mapped to the AIS08 codes and severities, following the rules outlined in each coding manual. The panel of experts was comprised of coders certified in ICD and/or AIS from around the world. In the process of developing the map from ICD to AIS, the experts created rules to address issues with the differences in coding guidelines between the two schemas and assure a consistent approach to all codes. Results: Over 19,000 ICD codes were analyzed and maps were generated for each code to AIS08 chapters, AIS08 severities, and ISS body regions. After completion of the maps, 14,101 (74%) of the eligible 19,012 injury related ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM codes were assigned valid AIS08 severity scores between 1 and 6. The remaining 4,911 codes were assigned an AIS08 of 9 (unknown) or were determined to be non-mappable because the ICD description lacked sufficient qualifying information for determining severity according to AIS rules. There were also 15,214 (80%) ICD codes mapped to AIS08 chapter and ISS body region, which allow for ISS calculations for patient datasets. Conclusion: This mapping between ICD and AIS provides a comprehensive, expert-designed solution for analysts to bridge the data gap between the injury descriptions provided in hospital codes (ICD-9-CM, ICD-10-CM) and injury severity codes (AIS08). By applying consistent rules from both the ICD and AIS taxonomies, the expert panel created these definitive maps, which are the only ones endorsed by AAAM. Initial validation upheld the quality of these maps for the estimation of AIS severity, but future work should include verification of these maps for MAIS and ISS estimations with large datasets. These ICD-AIS maps will support data analysis from databases with injury information classified in these two different systems and open new doors for the investigation of injury from traumatic events using large injury datasets.


The authors would like to acknowledge the AAAM Board for the support and sponsorship in developing these maps.



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Traffic Injury Prevention






1 - 5


LOFTIS, K. ... et al., 2016. Development of an expert based ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM map to AIS 2005 update 2008. Traffic Injury Prevention, 17 (sup1), pp.1-5.


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This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Traffic Injury Prevention on 2 September 2016, available online:

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