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Development of an expert derived ICD-AIS map for serious AIS3+ injury identification

journal contribution
posted on 30.01.2020, 11:34 by Jo Barnes, Kathryn L Loftis, Lauren Jones, Janet P Price, Patrick J Gillich, Kathy Cookman, Amy L Brammer, Trish St. Germain, Vickie Graymire, Donna A Nayduch, Maureen Brennan
Objective: The objective of the mapping project was to develop an expert derived map between the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) clinical modifications (CM) and the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) to be able to relate AIS severity to ICD coded data road traffic collision data in EU datasets. The maps were developed to enable the identification of serious AIS3+ injury and provide details of the mapping process for assumptions to be made about injury severity from mass datasets. This article describes in detail the mapping process of the International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) and the International Classification of Diseases Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) codes to the Abbreviated Injury Scale 2005, Update 2008 (AIS08) codes to identify injury with an AIS severity of 3 or more (AIS3+ severity) to determine ‘serious’ (MAIS3+) road traffic injuries.
Methods: Over 19,000 ICD codes were mapped from the following injury categories; injury ICD-9-CM (Chapter 17) codes between ‘800 and 999.9’ and injury ICD-10-CM (Chapter 19) ‘S’ and ‘T’ prefixed codes were reviewed and mapped to an AIS08 category and then relate the severity to three groups; AIS3+, AIS <=2 and AIS 9 (no-map). The mapping was undertaken by ICD coding experts and certified AIS specialists from Europe, North America, Australia and Canada in face-to-face working groups and subsequent webinars between May 2014 and October 2015. During the process, the business rules were documented to define guidelines for the mapping process and enable inter-rater discrepancies to be resolved.
Results: In total 2,504 ICD-9-CM codes were mapped to the AIS, of which 780 (31%) were assigned an AIS3+ severity. For the16,508 ICD-10-CM mapped codes a total of 2,323 (14%) were assigned an AIS3+ severity. Some 17% (n=426) and 27% (n=4,485) of ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM codes respectively were assigned to AIS9 (no-map) following the mapping process. It was evident there were ‘problem’ codes that could not be easily mapped to an AIS code to reflect severity. Problem maps affect the specificity of the map and severity when used to translate historical data in large datasets.
Conclusions: The Association for the Advancement in Automotive Medicine, AAAM-endorsed expert-derived map offers a unique tool to road safety researchers to establish the number of MAIS3+ serious injuries occurring on the roads. The detailed process offered in this paper will enable researchers to understand the decision making and identify limitations when using the AIS08/ICD map on country-specific data. The results could inform protocols for dealing with problem codes to enable country comparisons of MAIS3+ serious injury rates.



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Published in

Traffic Injury Prevention






181 - 187


Taylor & Francis


AM (Accepted Manuscript)

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© Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Traffic Injury Prevention on 6 March 2020, available online:

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Dr Jo Barnes. Deposit date: 29 January 2020


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