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Effect of fat reformulated dairy food consumption on postprandial flow-mediated dilatation and cardiometabolic risk biomarker compared with conventional dairy: a randomized, controlled trial

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posted on 14.01.2022, 11:52 by Oonagh MarkeyOonagh Markey, Dafni Vasilopoulou, Kirsty Kliem, Colette Fagan, Alistair Grandison, Rachel Sutton, David Humphries, Susan Todd, Kim Jackson, David Ian Givens, Julie Lovegrove
Background: Longer-term consumption of saturated fatty acid (SFA)-reduced, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)-enriched dairy products have been reported to improve fasting flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD). Yet, their impact on endothelial function in the postprandial state warrants investigation.
Objective: To compare the impact of a fatty acid (FA)-modified with a conventional (control) dairy diet on the postprandial %FMD (primary outcome) and systemic cardiometabolic responses to representative meals, and retrospectively explore whether treatment effects differ by apolipoprotein (APO)E or endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) Glu298Asp gene polymorphisms.
Methods: In a crossover-design randomized controlled study, 52 adults with moderate cardiovascular disease risk consumed dairy products [38% total energy intake (%TE) from fat: FA-modified (target: 16%TE SFAs; 14%TE MUFAs) or control (19%TE SFAs; 11%TE MUFAs)] for 12-wk, separated by an 8-wk washout. Blood sampling and FMD measurements (0-480 min) were performed pre- and post-intervention after sequential mixed meals that were representative of the assigned dairy diets (0 min; ~50 g fat; 330 min; ~30 g fat).
Results: Relative to pre-intervention (∆), the FA-modified dairy diet and meals (treatment) attenuated the increase in the incremental AUC (iAUC), but not AUC, for the %FMD response observed with the conventional treatment (-135 ± 69 vs +199 ± 82 % x min; P = 0.005). The ∆ iAUC, but not AUC, for the apoB response decreased after FA-modified yet increased after the conventional treatment (-4 ± 3 vs +3 ± 3 mg/mL x min; P = 0.004). The ∆ iAUC decreased for total plasma SFAs (P = 0.003) and trans 18:1 (P < 0.0001) and increased for cis-MUFAs (P < 0.0001) following conventional, relative to the FA-modified treatment. No treatment x APOE- or eNOS-genotype interactions were evident for any outcome.
Conclusions: This study provides novel insights into the longer-term effects of FA-modified dairy food consumption on postprandial cardiometabolic responses. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02089035.

Funding

MICA: Reducing cardiovascular disease risk through replacement of saturated fat in milk and dairy products

Medical Research Council

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History

School

  • Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences

Published in

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Publisher

Oxford University Press

Version

VoR (Version of Record)

Rights holder

© the Authors

Publisher statement

This is an Open Access Article. It is published by OUP under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported Licence (CC BY). Full details of this licence are available at: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Acceptance date

20/12/2021

Publication date

2022-01-10

ISSN

0002-9165

eISSN

1938-3207

Language

en

Depositor

Dr Oonagh Markey. Deposit date: 14 January 2022