Loughborough University
Uchegbulam_2021_EffectofSeasonalChangeontheBiomechanical.pdf (586.18 kB)

Effect of seasonal change on the biomechanical and physical properties of the human skin

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journal contribution
posted on 2023-02-24, 12:02 authored by Ifeanyi Uchegbulam, Simon G. Danby, Roger Lewis, Matt J. Carré, Raman MaitiRaman Maiti
In this study, the effect of one cycle of winter to summer seasonal transition on the mechanical and physical properties of skin was investigated in vivo. Fourteen healthy skin volunteers aged between 22 and 42 years were studied at the volar lower and upper arms. The findings indicate a 22.15% and 34.29% decrease in trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) and the average epidermal roughness (AER), respectively. Also, improved skin properties were observed such as a 25.48% rise in average epidermal hydration (AEH), 22.59% in skin thickness, 38.64% and 21.92% in melanin and redness, respectively, as well as an 8.25% rise in its firmness and 23.14% in elasticity when strained with uniaxial deformations. An inverse correlation was established between TEWL and AEH with a linear relationship between stratum corneum roughness versus TEWL as well as thickness and hydration. Also, the skin firmness exhibited a direct proportionality with TEWL and an inverse correlation with skin hydration where these relationships were stronger in summer than in winter. Furthermore, time-dependent results demonstrated three-staged elastic, viscoelastic and creep deformations with high, moderate and low strain rates respectively at both anatomical locations. The winter season displayed lower skin firmness and elasticity of 0.37 mm and 0.04 mm compared to 0.40 mm and 0.06 mm in summer accordingly. Anatomically, the two arm regions displayed different results with the upper arm having more consistent results than the lower arm. These results will find relevance in sensor skins and exoskeletons in Medicare, robotic and military technologies as well as innovations in cosmetics and dermatology.


Nigerian Tertiary Education Trust Fund



  • Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering

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Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials








  • AM (Accepted Manuscript)

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© Elsevier

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This paper was accepted for publication in Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials published by Elsevier. The final publication is available at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmbbm.2021.105058. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

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Dr Raman Maiti. Deposit date: 23 February 2023

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