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Effect of the blooming of chemical curatives on the dynamic behaviour of silanised silica-filled natural rubber-to-metal bonded bobbins

journal contribution
posted on 2017-09-12, 15:55 authored by Farhan Saeed, Ali Ansarifar, Robert J. Ellis, Yared Haile-Meskel
Rubber is viscoelastic in nature and used in a variety of industrial applications. Rubber mounts are used to dampen vibration and shock. Damping, fatigue and dynamic properties of rubber mounts depend to a large extent on chemical ingredients mixed with the rubber. Natural rubber is the most widely used polymer for conventional mounts. Apart from natural rubber, different fillers and rubber chemicals are also present in conventional formulation of rubber mounts. Conventionally, five different classes of chemical curatives are used in rubber industries, which include curing agents, primary and secondary accelerators as well as primary and secondary activators. When chemical curatives are present in excessive amounts in rubber, they migrate to the rubber surface and form a bloomed layer. In this work, two rubber formulations were used for preparing rubber-to-metal bonded bobbin mounts. The formulations were primarily based on natural rubber with 60 parts per hundred rubber by weight (p.h.r.) precipitated amorphous white silica nanofiller. The surface of silica was pre-treated with bis(3-triethoxysilylpropyl)-tetrasulphane (TESPT) coupling agent to chemically bond silica to the rubber. The rubber was cured primarily by reacting the tetrasulphane groups of TESPT with the rubber chains using a sulphenamide accelerator and the cure was then optimised by adding zinc oxide as an activator. The ratio of the accelerator to activator in one compound was 6 p. h.r./0.3. p.h.r. and the compound showed extensive blooming of the accelerator on the rubber surface when stored at ambient temperature for up to 60 days. However, the blooming was reduced significantly by changing the ratio of the accelerator to activator to 3 p.h.r./2.5. p.h.r., which was subsequently used to prepare a second compound. Dynamic and static properties of the bobbins were subsequently measured. Both compounds showed very low phase angle (δ) and spring rate ratio K d /K s (K d : dynamic spring rate; K s : static spring rate). Notably, the compound with the high accelerator to activator ratio had superior aforementioned properties, but the dynamic fatigue life of the bobbin reduced noticeably due to a gradual deterioration of the bond caused by the migration of the accelerator to the bonded interface.



  • Aeronautical, Automotive, Chemical and Materials Engineering


  • Materials

Published in

Journal of Rubber Research






75 - 90


SAEED, F. ... et al., 2013. Effect of the blooming of chemical curatives on the dynamic behaviour of silanised silica-filled natural rubber-to-metal bonded bobbins. Journal of Rubber Research, 16 (2), pp.75-90.


Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia


  • AM (Accepted Manuscript)

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This work is made available according to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) licence. Full details of this licence are available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

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