Effects of exercise on acute kidney injury biomarkers and the potential influence of fluid intake
journal contributionposted on 22.04.2021, 12:38 authored by Loris Juett, Lewis JamesLewis James, Stephen MearsStephen Mears
Acute kidney injury (AKI) incidence (diagnosed by changes in serum creatinine [Cr]) following prolonged endurance events has been reported to be anywhere from 4 to 85%, and hypohydration may contribute to this. Whilst an increase in serum Cr indicates impaired kidney function, this might be influenced by muscle damage. Therefore, the use of other AKI biomarkers which can detect renal tubular injury may be more appropriate. The long-term consequences of AKI are not well understood, but there are some potential concerns of an increased subsequent risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Therefore, this brief review explores the effects of exercise training/competition on novel AKI biomarkers and the potential influence of fluid intake. The increase in novel AKI biomarkers following prolonged endurance events suggests renal tubular injury. This is likely due to the long duration and relatively high exercise intensity, producing increased sympathetic tone, body temperature, hypohydration, and muscle damage. Whilst muscle damage appears to be an important factor in the pathophysiology of exercise-associated AKI, it may require coexisting hypohydration. Fluid intake seems to play a role in exercise-associated AKI, as maintaining euhydration with water ingestion during simulated physical work in the heat appears to attenuate rises in AKI biomarkers. The composition of fluid intake may also be important, as high-fructose drinks have been shown to exacerbate AKI biomarkers. However, it is yet to be seen if these findings are applicable to athletes performing strenuous exercise in a temperate environment. Additionally, further work should examine the effects of repeated bouts of strenuous exercise on novel AKI biomarkers.
- Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences