Effects of hybrid cycle and handcycle exercise on cardiovascular disease risk factors in people with spinal cord injury: a randomized controlled trial
journal contributionposted on 2015-05-20, 11:12 authored by Arjan J. Bakkum, Tom Paulson, Nicolette BishopNicolette Bishop, Vicky Goosey-TolfreyVicky Goosey-Tolfrey, J.M. Stolwijk-Swuste, D.J. van Kuppevelt, Sonja de Groot, Thomas W. Janssen
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of a 16-week exercise programme, using either a hybrid cycle or a handcycle, on cardiovascular disease risk factors in people with spinal cord injury. PARTICIPANTS: Nineteen individuals with spinal cord injury ≥ 8 years. DESIGN: Multicentre randomized controlled trial. Both the hybrid cycle group (n = 9) and the handcycle group (n = 10) trained twice a week for 16 weeks on the specific cycle. Outcome measures obtained pre and post the programme were: metabolic syndrome components (waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and insulin resistance), inflammatory status (C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6 and -10), and visceral adiposity (trunk and android fat). RESULTS: For all outcome measures, there were no significant differences over time between the 2 training groups. Overall significant reductions were found for waist circumference (p = 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.03), insulin resistance (p = 0.006), CRP (p = 0.05), IL-6 (p = 0.04), IL-6/IL-10 ratio (p = 0.03), and trunk (p = 0.04) and android (p = 0.02) fat percentage. No significant main effects for time were observed for systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, IL-10, and trunk and android fat mass. CONCLUSION: The 16-week exercise programme, using either a hybrid cycle or a handcycle, found similar beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome components, inflammatory status and visceral adiposity, indicating that there were no additional benefits of functional electrical stimulation-induced leg exercise over handcycle exercise alone.
This study was financially supported by Zon-Mw Rehabilitation program and Fonds NutsOhra (grant no. 89000006).
- Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences