The Journal of Physiology - 2022 - Mesquita - Effects of reciprocal inhibition and whole‐body relaxation on persistent.pdf (2.94 MB)
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Effects of reciprocal inhibition and whole‐body relaxation on persistent inward currents estimated by two different methods

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journal contribution
posted on 21.04.2022, 10:29 by Ricardo NO Mesquita, Janet L Taylor, Gabriel S Trajano, Jakob SkarabotJakob Skarabot, Aleš Holobar, Basílio AM Gonçalves, Anthony J Blazevich

Persistent inward currents (PICs) are crucial for initiation, acceleration, and maintenance of motoneuron firing. As PICs are highly sensitive to synaptic inhibition and facilitated by serotonin and noradrenaline, we hypothesised that both reciprocal inhibition (RI) induced by antagonist nerve stimulation and whole-body relaxation (WBR) would reduce PICs in humans. To test this, we estimated PICs using the well-established paired motor unit (MU) technique. High-density surface electromyograms were recorded from gastrocnemius medialis during voluntary, isometric 20-s ramp, plantarflexor contractions and decomposed into MU discharges to calculate delta frequency (ΔF). Moreover, another technique (VibStim), which evokes involuntary contractions proposed to result from PIC activation, was used. Plantarflexion torque and soleus activity were recorded during 33-s Achilles tendon vibration and simultaneous 20-Hz bouts of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) of triceps surae. ΔF was decreased by RI (n = 15, 5 females) and WBR (n = 15, 7 females). In VibStim, torque during vibration at the end of NMES and sustained post-vibration torque were reduced by WBR (n = 19, 10 females), while other variables remained unchanged. All VibStim variables remained unaltered in RI (n = 20, 10 females). Analysis of multiple human MUs in this study demonstrates the ability of local, focused inhibition to attenuate the effects of PICs on motoneuron output during voluntary motor control. Moreover, it shows the potential to reduce PICs through non-pharmacological, neuromodulatory interventions such as WBR. The absence of a consistent effect in VibStim might be explained by a floor effect resulting from low-magnitude involuntary torque combined with the negative effects of the interventions.


Versus Arthritis Foundation Fellowship (ref: 4422569)

Slovenian Research Agency (project J2-1731 and Programme funding P2-0041)



  • Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences

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The Journal of Physiology




AM (Accepted Manuscript)

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This is an Open Access Article. It is published by Wiley. This is an Accepted Article that has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication in The Journal of Physiology, but has yet to undergo copy-editing and proof correction. Please cite this article as an 'Accepted Article'; doi: 10.1113/JP282765. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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Dr Jakob Skarabot. Deposit date: 19 April 2022