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Evaluation of thermal comfort in mixed-mode buildings in temperate oceanic climates using American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers Comfort Database II

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journal contribution
posted on 26.08.2021, 10:04 by Mohamad Abdul Gaffoor, Mahroo EftekhariMahroo Eftekhari, Xiaoyan LuoXiaoyan Luo
A comprehensive understanding of occupant comfort in mixed-mode (MM) buildings is crucial for the design of mixed-mode buildings which are being proposed as a low-energy solution to combat the global warming without compromising comfort. Current comfort standards are mainly for naturally ventilated (NV) or air-conditioned (AC) buildings and there is a significant gap in standards for mixed-mode buildings. With comfort databases playing a major role in the development of thermal comfort models, the recently published ASHRAE Comfort Database II is utilized, in this research, to investigate the thermal sensation and occupant’s behavioural adaptations in mixed-mode buildings in temperate oceanic climates and to develop an adaptive thermal comfort model based on the outdoor environmental conditions. The PMV model was found to underpredict the actual thermal sensation of the occupants while the occupant adaptivity was found to be lower than that predicted by the adaptive models of Standard 55 and EN15251/ EN 16798-1. Furthermore, based on the results of this study and the various impediments faced, recommendations are proposed for future comfort surveys so that more detailed and conclusive studies can be conducted for wider applications using open-source thermal comfort databases.
Practical Application
Good understanding of occupant comfort is necessary to reduce building energy consumption without compromising comfort. This paper explores the use of ASHRAE Comfort Database II for determining occupant comfort in MM buildings in temperate oceanic climates and the limitations faced therein. A practical and publicly accessible database developed based on the recommendations from this study will improve thermal comfort models and enable better prediction of occupant comfort while improving energy efficiency substantially.



  • Architecture, Building and Civil Engineering

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Building Services Engineering Research and Technology: an international journal


SAGE Publications


VoR (Version of Record)

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© The authors

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This is an Open Access Article. It is published by Sage under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International Licence (CC BY-NC). Full details of this licence are available at:

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Dr Mahroo Eftekhari. Deposit date: 25 August 2021