2010_Furlong_inertia parameters.pdf (364.45 kB)

Evolution of the measurement of body segment inertial parameters since the 1970s

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journal contribution
posted on 01.03.2016, 13:30 by Laura-Anne Furlong
Since the development of biomechanics as a sub-discipline within movement science in the last 35 to 40 years (1), analysis techniques have evolved rapidly. To attain the goals of sports biomechanics - performance enhancement, comfort, injury prevention and safety (2) - it has been necessary to further develop techniques to both quantify and analyse data. Research questions have evolved from quantification of movement to questioning how and why movement occurs, and optimisation of performance. Methods of reconstruction such as the 3D Direct Linear Transformation (DLT) (3) and 2D-DLT (4) have evolved from creation to determination of the most accurate reconstruction method (5). Motion analysis has evolved from force-time data (6) to online systems and real-time feedback (7). Errors from soft tissue motion are now investigated to quantify and correct (8-9). Data smoothing has evolved from Winter et al.’s original paper on removal of kinematic noise (10) to modern work by Robertson and Dowling (11) investigating optimal filter design. Computer modelling has evolved from simplistic models of the 70s and 80s investigating simple locomotion (12) to sophisticated modern models of high bar gymnastics (13), high jump (14) and muscle stiffness of the horse (15). Initial work on co-ordination by Bernstein (16) has now evolved into a distinct field of motor control (17-18), with its own measurement issues (19). The focus of this article, however, is on the evolution of measurement techniques for determination of body segment inertial parameters (BSIP) with particular emphasis on development of mathematical models and scanning and imaging techniques.



  • Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences

Published in

The Undergraduate Journal of Ireland and Northern Ireland




462 - 475


FURLONG, L-A., 2010. Evolution of the measurement of body segment inertial parameters since the 1970s. The Undergraduate Journal of Ireland and Northern Ireland, 1, pp. 465-477.


The Undergraduates Awards


AM (Accepted Manuscript)

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This work is made available according to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) licence. Full details of this licence are available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

Publication date



This paper was accepted for publication of the journal, The Undergraduate Journal.



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