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Factors influencing time allocation of sport event volunteers

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journal contribution
posted on 11.06.2018, 08:49 by Kirstin Hallmann, Paul Downward, G. Dickson
Purpose: Given the increasing demands placed on a sport event workforce in servicing the needs of spectators, to attract and recruit volunteers to the industry, it is important for sport event managers to know what is driving how much time volunteers allocate to an event. We investigate the individual and macro level factors influencing the allocation of time to volunteer at sport events. Design/Methodology/Approach: Survey data were collected from volunteers at 25 sport events (n=2,303). Multi-level modelling was used to identify common effects controlling for event differences. Findings: Male gender significantly influences time allocated to an event at the individual level. At the macro level, the number of local inhabitants has a significant negative effect whereas the status of an international event and duration contribute positively to time allocation. Practical implications: The results provide clear evidence that macro level variables can stimulate interest in event volunteering opportunities. Originality/Value: This paper uses a multi-level approach to assess the influence of micro and macro level variables on time allocation by sport event volunteers. Using this approach, event heterogeneity can be controlled.



  • Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences

Published in

International Journal of Event and Festival Management


HALLMANN, K., DOWNWARD, P.M. and DICKSON, G., 2018. Factors influencing time allocation of sport event volunteers. International Journal of Event and Festival Management, 9(3), pp. 316-331.


© Emerald


AM (Accepted Manuscript)

Publisher statement

This work is made available according to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) licence. Full details of this licence are available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

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This paper was accepted for publication in the journal International Journal of Event and Festival Management and the definitive published version is available at https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEFM-01-2018-0004






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