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Fast in-situ synchrotron X-ray imaging of the interfacial reaction during self-propagating exothermic reactive bonding

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posted on 2023-02-27, 13:30 authored by S Ramachandran, Yi Zhong, Stuart RobertsonStuart Robertson, Christoforos Panteli, Shuibao Liang, Fan Wu, Renqian Zhou, Shashidhara Marathe, Zhaoxia ZhouZhaoxia Zhou, Andrew S Holmes, Sarah J Haigh, Changqing Liu, Wajira Mirihanage
Self-Propagating Exothermic Reactive (SPER) bonding with lead-free solders is potentially attractive for microelectronics assembly due to its highly localised heating and minimal thermal loading of the components and substrates. The transient dynamics of melting, wetting, solidification and defect formation during SPER bonding were observed using in-situ synchrotron X-ray imaging with sub-millisecond temporal resolution and the results were further analysed using electron microscopy and thermal modelling. In-situ imaging revealed the preferential melting of the solder and subsequent wetting of the substrate. Numerous air bubbles were observed to form at the bonding interface. The distribution of these bubbles was found to vary with the thermal conductivity and wettability of the substrates. These bubbles appear to reduce the effectiveness of bonding by promoting the formation of cracks and voids within the solder joint. Our results show that metallisation layers on the bonding substrate can influence the dynamics of melting for the solder materials and thereby directly influence the reliability of SPER interconnects.

Funding

Quasi-ambient bonding to enable cost-effective high temperature Pb-free solder interconnects

Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council

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Quasi-ambient bonding to enable cost-effective high temperature Pb-free solder interconnects

Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council

Find out more...

Quasi-ambient bonding to enable cost-effective high temperature Pb-free solder interconnects

Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council

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Underpinning Multi-User Equipment

Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council

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Sir Henry Royce Institute - recurrent grant

Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council

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The Royce: Capitalising on the investment

Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council

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Sir Henry Royce Institute - Manchester and NNL Equipment

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Sir Henry Royce Institute - Manchester Build

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History

School

  • Aeronautical, Automotive, Chemical and Materials Engineering
  • Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering

Department

  • Materials

Published in

Materialia

Volume

23

Publisher

Elsevier

Version

  • VoR (Version of Record)

Rights holder

© The Authors

Publisher statement

This is an Open Access Article. It is published by Elsevier under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International Licence (CC BY-NC-ND). Full details of this licence are available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

Acceptance date

2022-04-28

Publication date

2022-04-29

Copyright date

2022

eISSN

2589-1529

Language

  • en

Depositor

Dr Zhaoxia Zhou. Deposit date: 27 February 2023

Article number

101444

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