Bogin_2021_Fear, violence, inequality, and stunting in Guatemala.pdf (7.12 MB)
Download file

Fear, violence, inequality, and stunting in Guatemala

Download (7.12 MB)
journal contribution
posted on 22.07.2021, 08:41 by Barry Bogin
Background: Stunting is defined by the public health community as a length- or height-for-age <−2 SD of a growth standard or reference and is claimed to be caused by poor nutrition, repeated infection, and inadequate psychosocial stimulation. Material and
Methods: Stunting is common at all income levels in middle- and low-income countries. At the higher income levels, stunting is unlikely to be caused by nutrient deficiency or infectious disease.
Results: In Guatemala, 17% of <5-year-olds in the highest family income quintile are stunted. Guatemala has a history of violence from armed conflict, current-day social and economic inequalities, government corruption, and threat of kidnapping for the wealthiest families.
Discussion and Conclusion: The high level of persistent violence creates an ecology of fear, an extreme range of inequalities in Social-Economic-Political-Emotional resources, and biosocial stress that inhibits skeletal growth and causes stunting for people of all income levels.

History

School

  • Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences

Published in

American Journal of Human Biology

Publisher

Wiley

Version

VoR (Version of Record)

Rights holder

© The authors

Publisher statement

This is an Open Access Article. It is published by Wiley under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported Licence (CC BY). Full details of this licence are available at: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Acceptance date

28/05/2021

Publication date

2021-06-14

ISSN

1042-0533

eISSN

1520-6300

Language

en

Depositor

Prof Barry Bogin. Deposit date: 21 July 2021

Article number

ARTN e23627

Usage metrics

Read the paper on the publisher website

Licence

Exports