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High-energy SWCNT cathode for aqueous Al-ion battery boosted by multi-ion intercalation chemistry

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journal contribution
posted on 26.10.2021, 08:38 authored by Wending Pan, Yan Zhao, Jianjun Mao, Yifei Wang, Xiaolong Zhao, Kee Wah Leong, Shijing Luo, Xinhua Liu, Huizhi Wang, Jin Xuan, Shichun Yang, Yue Chen, Dennis Y. C. Leung
The aqueous Al-ion battery has achieved great progress in recent years. It now shows comparable performance to that of even non-aqueous Al-ion batteries. However, it also shows relatively low energy output and there is limited general understanding of the mechanism behind this restriction to its practical application. Thus, the development of a high-performance cathode material is in great demand. Herein, a high-capacity single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) is developed as a cathode for the water-in-salt electrolyte-based aqueous Al-ion battery, which provides an ultra-high specific capacity of 790 mAh g–1 (based on the mass of SWCNT) at a high current density of 5 A g–1 even after 1000 cycles. Moreover, the SWCNT/Al battery shows a complicated multi-ion intercalation mechanism, where AlCl4, Cl, Al3+, and H+ can function at the same time, improving the battery output. Beyond recently revealed H+ and metal ion co-intercalation, the Cl-assisted intercalation of Al3+ ions mechanism is also studied by experimental characterization and modeling for the first time, which significantly boosts the Al3+ storage capacity. This multi-ion intercalation mechanism combines the high-voltage anion deintercalation and the high-capacity cation intercalation, and thus, benefits the development and application of high-energy Al-ion batteries in the future.


Smart Microfluidics Towards Low-Cost High-Performance Li-Ion Batteries

Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council

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University of Hong Kong. Grant Number: 201910160008

National Key R&D Program of China. Grant Number: 2018YFB0104400

National Natural Science Foundation of China. Grant Number: U1864213



  • Aeronautical, Automotive, Chemical and Materials Engineering


  • Chemical Engineering

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Advanced Energy Materials








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This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: PAN, W. ... et al, 2021. High-energy SWCNT cathode for aqueous Al-ion battery boosted by multi-ion intercalation chemistry. Advanced Energy Materials, 11 (39), 2101514, which has been published in final form at https://doi.org/10.1002/aenm.202101514. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions. This article may not be enhanced, enriched or otherwise transformed into a derivative work, without express permission from Wiley or by statutory rights under applicable legislation. Copyright notices must not be removed, obscured or modified. The article must be linked to Wiley’s version of record on Wiley Online Library and any embedding, framing or otherwise making available the article or pages thereof by third parties from platforms, services and websites other than Wiley Online Library must be prohibited.

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Prof Jin Xuan. Deposit date: 25 October 2021

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