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High and odd impact exercise training improved physical function and fall risk factors in community-dwelling older men

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posted on 14.11.2017, 16:48 by Sarah J. Allison, Katherine Brooke-Wavell, Jonathan Folland
High impact exercise programmes can improve bone strength, but little is known about whether this type of training further benefits fracture risk by improving physical function in older people. Objectives: This study investigated the influence of high impact exercise on balance, muscle function and morphology in older men. Methods: Fifty, healthy men (65-80 years) were assigned to a 6-month multidirectional hopping programme (TG) and twenty age and physical activity matched volunteers served as controls (CG). Before and after training, muscle function (hop performance, leg press and plantar- and dorsiflexion strength) and physiological determinants (muscle thickness and architecture) as well as balance control (sway path, one leg stance duration) were measured. Resting gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle thickness and architecture were assessed using ultrasonography. Results: Significant improvements in hop impulse (+12%), isometric leg-press strength (+4%) and ankle plantarflexion strength (+11%), dorsiflexor strength (+20%) were found in the TG compared to the CG (ANOVA interaction, P<0.05) and unilateral stance time improved over time for TG. GM muscle thickness indicated modest hypertrophy (+4%), but muscle architecture was unchanged. Conclusion: The positive changes in strength and balance after high impact and odd impact training would be expected to improve physical function in older adults.



  • Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences

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The Journal of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions


ALLISON, S.J., BROOKE WAVELL, K.S.F and FOLLAND, J.P., 2018. High and odd impact exercise training improved physical function and fall risk factors in community-dwelling older men. Journal of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions, 18(1), pp. 100-107.


International Society of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions


NA (Not Applicable or Unknown)

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This work is made available according to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) licence. Full details of this licence are available at:

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This paper was published as Open Access under the CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 licence.






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