Image enhanced mask R-CNN: A deep learning pipeline with new evaluation measures for wind turbine blade defect detection and classification
Demand for wind power has grown, and this has increased wind turbine blade (WTB) inspections and defect repairs. This paper empirically investigates the performance of state-of-the-art deep learning algorithms, namely, YOLOv3, YOLOv4, and Mask R-CNN for detecting and classifying defects by type. The paper proposes new performance evaluation measures suitable for defect detection tasks, and these are: Prediction Box Accuracy, Recognition Rate, and False Label Rate. Experiments were carried out using a dataset, provided by the industrial partner, that contains images from WTB inspections. Three variations of the dataset were constructed using different image augmentation settings. Results of the experiments revealed that on average, across all proposed evaluation measures, Mask R-CNN outperformed all other algorithms when transformation-based augmentations (i.e., rotation and flipping) were applied. In particular, when using the best dataset, the mean Weighted Average (mWA) values (i.e., mWA is the average of the proposed measures) achieved were: Mask R-CNN: 86.74%, YOLOv3: 70.08%, and YOLOv4: 78.28%. The paper also proposes a new defect detection pipeline, called Image Enhanced Mask R-CNN (IE Mask R-CNN), that includes the best combination of image enhancement and augmentation techniques for pre-processing the dataset, and a Mask R-CNN model tuned for the task of WTB defect detection and classification.
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- Computer Science