Imperceptibly off-center goalkeepers influence penalty-kick direction in soccer
journal contributionposted on 20.07.2016, 08:46 by Richard S.W. Masters, John van der Kamp, Robin JacksonRobin Jackson
The penalty kick generates a variety of strong emotions in soccer (Carroll, Ebrahim, Tilling, Macleod, & Smith, 2002), and places the goalkeeper at such a disadvantage that only approximately 18% of penalty kicks are saved (Kropp & Trapp, 1999). We asked whether a goalkeeper can, by standing marginally left or right of goal center, bias a penalty taker implicitly to kick to the side with greater area, thus allowing the goalkeeper to dive in that direction to make a save. We show that the penalty taker is unlikely to be mindful that the goalkeeper is off center, but nevertheless can identify the side with greater area and will be more likely to direct the penalty kick to that side than to the other side.
- Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences