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Inactivity and obesity: consequences for macrophage-mediated inflammation and the development of cardiometabolic disease

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posted on 2023-03-10, 15:39 authored by Nicolette BishopNicolette Bishop, Alex J Wadley, Malik Hamrouni, Matthew RobertsMatthew Roberts

Obesity and dyslipidaemia are strongly associated with the development of cardiometabolic diseases including cardiovascular disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. While these conditions are preventable, they are leading causes of mortality globally. There is now overwhelming clinical and experimental evidence that these conditions are driven by chronic systemic inflammation, with a growing body of data suggesting that this can be regulated by increasing levels of physical activity and reducing sedentary time. In this review we address the role of macrophage-mediated inflammation on the development of cardiometabolic diseases in individuals with overweight and obesity and how reducing sedentary behaviour and increasing physical activity appears to lessen these proinflammatory processes, reducing the risk of developing cardiometabolic diseases. While loss of subcutaneous and visceral fat mass is important for reducing chronic systemic inflammation, the mediating effects of increasing physical activity levels and lowering sedentary time on the development of inflamed adipose tissue also occur independently of changes in adiposity. The message that weight-loss is not necessary for the benefits of physical activity in lowering chronic inflammation and improving health should encourage those for whom losing weight is difficult. Additionally, while the health benefits of meeting the recommended physical activity guidelines are clear, simply moving more appears to lower chronic systemic inflammation. Reducing sitting time and increasing light physical activity may therefore provide an alternative, more approachable manner for some with overweight and obesity to become more active, reduce chronic inflammation and improve cardiometabolic health.

Funding

National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Leicester Biomedical Research Centre (BRC)

History

School

  • Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences

Published in

Proceedings of the Nutrition Society

Volume

82

Issue

1

Pages

13 - 21

Publisher

Cambridge University Press

Version

  • VoR (Version of Record)

Rights holder

© The Authors

Publisher statement

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Publication date

2022-08-23

Copyright date

2022

ISSN

0029-6651

eISSN

1475-2719

Language

  • en

Depositor

Prof Lettie Bishop. Deposit date: 31 August 2022

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