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Inclusive design drivers and barriers: a manufacturing perspective from Pakistan

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journal contribution
posted on 30.06.2015, 07:51 by Amjad Hussain, Aftab Ahmad, Keith CaseKeith Case
Developing countries contain a large proportion of the global population and the percentage of older people and people with disabilities is increasing. The demographics are discussed in the context of inclusive design and the drivers and barriers to inclusive design have been identified. Data was collected from 50 manufacturing-related individuals from various industrial sectors in Pakistan. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) relates to inclusive aspects of products, environment or service design, but most respondents either did not know about CSR or did not have a CSR post in their organizations, but 64% had awareness of inclusive design terminology. The study concluded that motivation through social responsibility; innovation and differentiation; demographics and consumer trends; brand enhancement; customer satisfaction; new market opportunity and legislation were the perceived drivers for manufacturers in Pakistan. Most respondents felt that lack of resources and guidance, lack of awareness about inclusive design, difficulty in changing the business culture, lack of government regulations and the perception that inclusive design is expensive were the most significant barriers to the promotion of inclusive design in manufacturing industries. Consequently, strategies should be adopted to raise inclusive design awareness, promote perceived drivers and overcome barriers.



  • Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering

Published in

Production and Manufacturing Research


HUSSAIN, A., AHMAD, A. and CASE, K., 2015. Inclusive design drivers and barriers: a manufacturing perspective from Pakistan. Production and Manufacturing Research, 3 (1), pp. 289–309.


Taylor & Francis (© 2015 The Authors)


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This paper was published by Taylor & Francis in the Open Access journal Production & Manufacturing Research. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecom, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.