Individual variation in hunger, energy intake and ghrelin responses to acute exercise
journal contributionposted on 13.02.2017, 13:41 by James KingJames King, Kevin Deighton, David R. Broom, Lucy K. Wasse, Jessica Douglas, Stephen F. Burns, Philip Cordery, Emily PetherickEmily Petherick, Rachel L. Batterham, Fernanda R. Goltz, Alice ThackrayAlice Thackray, Thomas E. Yates, David StenselDavid Stensel
Purpose: To characterise the immediate and extended impact of acute exercise on hunger, energy intake and circulating acylated ghrelin concentrations using a large dataset of homogenous experimental trials; and to describe the variation in responses between individuals. Methods: Data from 17 of our group’s experimental crossover trials were aggregated yielding a total sample of 192 young, healthy, males. In these studies, single bouts of moderate to high-intensity aerobic exercise (69 ± 5% VO2 peak; mean ± SD) were completed with detailed participant assessments occurring during and for several hours post-exercise. Mean hunger ratings were determined during (n = 178) and after (n = 118) exercise from visual analogue scales completed at 30 min intervals whilst ad libitum energy intake was measured within the first hour after exercise (n = 60) and at multiple meals (n = 128) during the remainder of trials. Venous concentrations of acylated ghrelin were determined at strategic time points during (n = 118) and after (n = 89) exercise. Results: At group-level, exercise transiently suppressed hunger (P < 0.010; Cohen’s d = 0.77) but did not affect energy intake. Acylated ghrelin was suppressed during exercise (P < 0.001; Cohen’s d = 0.10) and remained significantly lower than control (no exercise) afterwards (P < 0.024; Cohen’s d = 0.61). Between participants, there were notable differences in responses however a large proportion of this spread lay within the boundaries of normal variation associated with biological and technical assessment error. Conclusion: In young men, acute exercise suppresses hunger and circulating acylated ghrelin concentrations with notable diversity between individuals. Care must be taken to distinguish true inter-individual variation from random differences within normal limits.
This research was supported by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Diet, Lifestyle and Physical Activity Biomedical Research Unit based at University Hospitals of Leicester and Loughborough University.
- Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences