Journal Paper - Construction Innovation-with reviewer amendments-LUPIN.pdf (410.47 kB)
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Interface management of offsite bathroom construction: a conceptual model

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journal contribution
posted on 12.05.2022, 16:21 by Michael McCarney, Chris GoodierChris Goodier, Alistair Gibb


This paper aims to identify and discuss how process and people factors influence the successful implementation of organisational interface management in offsite bathroom construction.


A literature review identified 16 process and people factors. A mixed method approach was used to analyse data from eight offsite bathroom case study projects. A ranking approach determined the main process and people factors, consequently analysed using (Minitab) Frequency analysis, the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test and thematic analysis to establish the contributing sub-factors and their inter-relationships, to each other and to the literature. These factors and sub-factors formed the final conceptual model, bringing together interface management and offsite bathroom construction.


The nine factors instrumental to the conceptual model include six process factors: procurement, design management, supply chain management, health and safety, tolerance and quality and three people factors: communication, client/design team and project manager, reflecting the construction industry focus on hard processes over soft. The role of the project manager and communication, however, are the main factors which contribute to overall project success. Direct management of the offsite works by the contractor’s project manager is also highly significant.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations include the (UK) geographical focus of the research and the focus on bathroom pods in buildings.

Social implications

The research recognises three people (social) factors: communication, client/design team and project manager, with the first and third being the main factors which contribute to overall project success.


Originality stems from the focus on organisational interface management and how this relates to offsite bathroom construction (a practice gaining considerable momentum in industry) and the resultant model. Being grounded on more than one body of academic literature as well as 8 case studies and 82 industry interviews, there is value to both researchers and construction industry practitioners alike.


Loughborough University

Glasgow Caledonian University



  • Architecture, Building and Civil Engineering

Published in

Construction Innovation


Emerald Publishing Limited


AM (Accepted Manuscript)

Rights holder

© Emerald Publishing Limited

Publisher statement

This paper was accepted for publication in the journal Construction Innovation and the definitive published version is available at This author accepted manuscript is deposited under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC) licence. This means that anyone may distribute, adapt, and build upon the work for non-commercial purposes, subject to full attribution. If you wish to use this manuscript for commercial purposes, please contact

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Prof Chris Goodier. Deposit date: 10 March 2022