Invited review: The speed-duration relationship across the animal kingdom
The parameters of the hyperbolic speed-duration relationship (the asymptote critical speed, CS, and the curvature constant, D′) provide estimates of the maximal steady state speed (CS) and the distance an animal can run, swim, or fly at speeds above CS before it is forced to slow down or stop (D′). The speed-duration relationship has been directly studied in humans, horses, mice and rats. The technical difficulties with treadmill running in dogs and the relatively short greyhound race durations means that, perhaps surprisingly, it has not been assessed in dogs. The endurance capabilities of lizards, crabs and salamanders has also been measured, and the speed-duration relationship can be calculated from these data. These analyses show that 1) raising environmental temperature from 25 °C to 40 °C in lizards can double the CS with no change in D′; 2) that lungless salamanders have an extremely low critical speed due, most likely, to O2 diffusion limitations associated with cutaneous respiration; and 3) the painted ghost crab possesses the highest endurance parameter ratio (D′/CS) yet recorded (470 s), allowing it to maintain high speeds for extended periods. Although the speed-duration relationship has not been measured in fish, the sustainable swimming speed has been quantified in a range of species and is conceptually similar to the maximal steady state in humans. The high aerobic power of birds and low metabolic cost of transport during flight permits the extreme feats of endurance observed in bird migrations. However, the parameters of the avian speed-duration relationship have not been quantified.
- Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences
Published inComparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology
- VoR (Version of Record)
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Publisher statementThis is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)