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Low temperature performance evaluation of electrochemical energy storage technologies

journal contribution
posted on 02.03.2021, 09:18 by Ashley Fly, Iain Kirkpatrick, Rui Chen
The performance of electrochemical energy storage technologies such as batteries and supercapacitors are strongly affected by operating temperature. At low temperatures (<0 °C), decrease in energy storage capacity and power can have a significant impact on applications such as electric vehicles, unmanned aircraft, spacecraft and stationary power storage. In this work, the discharge behaviour of nine different commercial electrochemical cells are evaluated, representing a variety of lithium-ion, nickel metal hydride, lead acid and supercapacitor technologies. Discharge capacity, energy, maximum power and impedance spectra with equivalent circuit analysis are compared at temperatures ranging from +20 °C to -70 °C. Results demonstrate that despite exhibiting the greatest loss in performance with temperature reduction, the lithium-ion batteries tested provide the highest energy and power densities down to - 30 °C due to higher capacity and operating voltage. At lower temperatures, the lead-acid cell gives the highest energy density and supercapacitor the highest power density. A new simplified empirical method is introduced for lithium-ion cells to determine the optimum pre-heating temperature for maximum net energy output including heating efficiency. This new method can be used to assess the benefits of different cold-start thermal management strategies for electric vehicles. It is also demonstrated that the temperature of the lithium-ion cells tested can be accurately predicted from impedance phase change at low temperatures across a range of electrode materials.

History

School

  • Aeronautical, Automotive, Chemical and Materials Engineering

Department

  • Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering

Published in

Applied Thermal Engineering

Volume

189

Publisher

Elsevier BV

Version

AM (Accepted Manuscript)

Rights holder

© Elsevier

Publisher statement

This paper was accepted for publication in the journal Applied Thermal Engineering and the definitive published version is available at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2021.116750

Acceptance date

14/02/2021

Publication date

2021-02-20

Copyright date

2021

ISSN

1359-4311

Language

en

Depositor

Dr Ashley Fly. Deposit date: 1 March 2021

Article number

116750