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Low temperature performance evaluation of electrochemical energy storage technologies

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journal contribution
posted on 02.03.2021, 09:18 authored by Ashley FlyAshley Fly, Iain Kirkpatrick, Rui ChenRui Chen
The performance of electrochemical energy storage technologies such as batteries and supercapacitors are strongly affected by operating temperature. At low temperatures (<0 °C), decrease in energy storage capacity and power can have a significant impact on applications such as electric vehicles, unmanned aircraft, spacecraft and stationary power storage. In this work, the discharge behaviour of nine different commercial electrochemical cells are evaluated, representing a variety of lithium-ion, nickel metal hydride, lead acid and supercapacitor technologies. Discharge capacity, energy, maximum power and impedance spectra with equivalent circuit analysis are compared at temperatures ranging from +20 °C to -70 °C. Results demonstrate that despite exhibiting the greatest loss in performance with temperature reduction, the lithium-ion batteries tested provide the highest energy and power densities down to - 30 °C due to higher capacity and operating voltage. At lower temperatures, the lead-acid cell gives the highest energy density and supercapacitor the highest power density. A new simplified empirical method is introduced for lithium-ion cells to determine the optimum pre-heating temperature for maximum net energy output including heating efficiency. This new method can be used to assess the benefits of different cold-start thermal management strategies for electric vehicles. It is also demonstrated that the temperature of the lithium-ion cells tested can be accurately predicted from impedance phase change at low temperatures across a range of electrode materials.

History

School

  • Aeronautical, Automotive, Chemical and Materials Engineering

Department

  • Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering

Published in

Applied Thermal Engineering

Volume

189

Publisher

Elsevier BV

Version

AM (Accepted Manuscript)

Rights holder

© Elsevier

Publisher statement

This paper was accepted for publication in the journal Applied Thermal Engineering and the definitive published version is available at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2021.116750

Acceptance date

14/02/2021

Publication date

2021-02-20

Copyright date

2021

ISSN

1359-4311

Language

en

Depositor

Dr Ashley Fly. Deposit date: 1 March 2021

Article number

116750