Souto_et_al_Neuromotor_Examination_AppliedNeuropsyChild_2021.pdf (361.86 kB)
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Neuromotor examination in unilateral cerebral palsy: Bilateral impairments in different levels of motor integration

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posted on 17.06.2021, 08:54 authored by Deisiane Oliveira Souto, Thalita Karla Flores Cruz, Patricia Lemos Bueno Fontes, Korbinian MoellerKorbinian Moeller, Vitor Geraldi Haase
Unilateral cerebral palsy (UCP) usually results in damage to the unilateral pyramidal system. However, the clinical presentation of neuromotor deficits also suggests lesions to the extrapyramidal and cerebellar systems bilaterally. In this study, we developed and tested a behavioral neuromotor examination protocol assessing impairments at three levels of motor integration for children with UCP, also considering impairments of the non-paretic upper limb as well as the influences of the laterality of the lesion. We included 30 children with UCP (10.79 ± 2.61 years) and 60 healthy children (8.27 ± 1.57 years) in the study. All children were assessed on general cognitive ability and classified according to the manual ability classification system (MACS). Our neuromotor examination protocol incorporated specific tasks for each level of motor integration: pyramidal, extrapyramidal and cerebellar. Children with UCP and controls did not differ with respect to general cognitive abilities and sex but children with UCP were significantly older. Controls performed significantly better than children with UCP on neuromotor tasks at all levels of motor integration. Additionally, performance of the non-plegine hand in children with UCP was significantly inferior to controls. With the exception of fine motor skills (pyramidal level), children with right and left UCP did not differ. Our behavioral neuromotor examination was sensitive to reveal impairments at all three levels of motor integration bilaterally in children with UCP-although more subtle for the non-paretic limb.


Foundation for Research Support of the State of Minas Gerais [FAPEMIG, APQ-02755-SHA, APQ-03289-10, APQ-02953-14, APQ-03642-12]

CNPq excellence in research fellowship [308157/2011-7, 308267/2014-1]



  • Science


  • Mathematics Education Centre

Published in

Applied Neuropsychology: Child


Taylor & Francis


AM (Accepted Manuscript)

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© Taylor & Francis

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This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Applied Neuropsychology: Child on 08 Jun 2021, available online:

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Prof Korbinian Moeller. Deposit date: 16 June 2021