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Performance of Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu composite solder with TiC reinforcement: physical properties, solderability and microstructural evolution under isothermal ageing

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journal contribution
posted on 06.07.2016, 12:37 by Guang Chen, Hao Peng, Vadim Silberschmidt, Y.C. Chan, Changqing Liu, Fengshun Wu
This paper is focused on the effect of TiC nano-reinforcement that was successfully introduced into a SAC305 lead-free solder alloy with different weight fractions (0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 wt%) through a powder-metallurgy route. Actual retained ratios of TiC reinforcement in composite solder billets and solder joints were quantitatively analysed. The obtained SAC/TiC solders were also studied extensively with regard to their coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), wettability and thermal properties. In addition, evolution of interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMCs) and corresponding changes in mechanical properties under thermal ageing were investigated. Only about 10%–30% of initial TiC nanoparticles added were found retained in the final composite solder joints. With an appropriate addition amount of TiC nanoparticles, the composite solders exhibited an improvement in their wettability. A negligible change in their melting point and a widened melting range were found in composite solders containing TiC reinforcement. Also, the CTE of composite solder alloys was effectively decreased when compared with the plain SAC solder alloy. In addition, a growth of interfacial IMCs in composite solder joints was notably suppressed under isothermal ageing condition, while their corresponding mechanical properties of composite solder joints significantly outperformed those of non-reinforced solder joints throughout the ageing period.


The authors acknowledge the research funding by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (NSFC) and The Research Grants Council (RGC) Joint Research project (NSFC GRANT NO. 61261160498, RGC GRANT NO.CityU101/12). This research was also supported by the China-European Union technology cooperation project, No. 1110 as well as the Marie Curie International Research Staff Exchange Scheme Project within the 7th European Community Framework Programme, No. PIRSES-GA-2010-269113, entitled “Micro-Multi-Material Manufacture to Enable Multifunctional Miniaturised Devices (M6)”.



  • Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering

Published in

Journal of Alloys and Compounds




680 - 689


CHEN, G. ... et al, 2016. Performance of Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu composite solder with TiC reinforcement: physical properties, solderability and microstructural evolution under isothermal ageing. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 685, pp. 680-689.


© Elsevier


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This paper was accepted for publication in the journal Journal of Alloys and Compounds and the definitive published version is available at