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Periodontal diseases in elderly in Indonesia and the risk factors

journal contribution
posted on 01.02.2021, 09:45 by S Henry-Setyawan, Eef Hogervorst, TW Rahardjo, S Hadisaputro, R Djokomoeljanto
Objectives: To investigate the risk factors for periodontal diseases in rural elderly in Indonesia. Material and methods: One-hundred and seventy five elderly in community subjects in the rural sites of Borobudur district in Central Java were included in this cross sectional study. Periodontal status was measured as a Total Periodontal score and was determined by oral examination using a compound score of the following variables of interest: average percentage of number teeth involved in Bleeding on Probing (BOP), Probing Pocket Depth (PPD), Loss of Attachment (LOA), Tooth Mobility (TM) and of Furcation Involvement (FI). In this study was also measured the number of remaining teeth (RT) and periodontitis status (PS is positive when clinical attachment loss > 3mm) for periodontal disease indicators. Plaque score was measured using a disclosing gel two tone. Volume of saliva was measured after stimulation by chewing paraffin and pH of saliva was measured by using pH paper. Demographic characteristics and life-style data (including oral hygiene, smoking and dietary intake) were obtained by questionnaire and face to face interviews. Result: The selected respondents were all Javanese and 62% were women. Their age ranged between 60 and 90 years (mean±SD 70.7±7.8 years). Women reached 61.7%. The average educational level was low, 90.3% respondents had only obtained up to elementary school education and most were farmers or laborers. Risk factors for TPS using multiple linear regression was a high plaque score, while a high intake of fruit was protective. Risk factors for having few remaining teeth (RT) using multiple linear regression were a high plaque score, an older age, a low educational level, a history of smoking history and drinking tea. The only risk factor for PS was a high plaque score. Conclusion: Regardless of the model used (logistic or linear regression), a high dental plaque score emerged as a main and independent determinant of periodontal disease. The status of periodontal disease can be reflected through total periodontal score, the number of remaining teeth and periodontitis status. This data indicates that maintenance of oral hygiene is crucial in preventing periodontal disease in the elderly.



  • Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences

Published in

International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research






3638 - 3647


Advanced Scientific Research


AM (Accepted Manuscript)

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© Advanced Scientific Research

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This paper was accepted for publication in the journal International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and the definitive published version is available at

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Prof Eef Hogervorst. Deposit date: 30 January 2021


Loughborough Publications