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Production and characterisation of adsorbents synthesised by hydrothermal carbonisation of biomass wastes

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posted on 2021-04-20, 15:29 authored by E Danso-Boateng, AS Mohammed, Graham SanderGraham Sander, AD Wheatley, E Nyktari, Ime C UsenIme C Usen
Surface structure and chemical properties of adsorbents are important factors required to understand the mechanism of adsorption. The purpose of this study was to produce hydrochars from biomass using hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) and to analyse their sorption capacities. The biomass used in this study were coco-peat (CP), coconut shell (CS), eggshell (ES), rice husk (RH) and lemon peel (LP). The operating conditions for HTC were 200 °C and 20 h residence time. The characterisation methods consisted of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier Transform Infrared Ray (FTIR) Spectroscopy, and Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET). The results showed that HTC improved the sorption capacities of the biomass wastes. It was found that hydrochars were crispy and flaky with more micro- and meso-porous structures, indicating that lignin and other components were denatured due to carbonisation. This led to the creation of more active sites for sorption and pollutant binding. The hydrochars showed a percentage increase in carbon content and a decrease in oxygen content with traces of other elements, compared to their corresponding raw biomass. The major functional groups identified were –OH and –COOH. The surface area of the hydrochars which include CP (2.14 m2/g), CS (14.04 m2/g), ES (0.50 m2/g), RH (15.74 m2/g), and LP (6.89 m2/g) were significantly improved compared with those of the raw biomass. The study showed that the hydrochars produced from the biomass wastes have the potential to be used as adsorbents.

Funding

Petroleum Technology Development Fund (PTDF), Abuja, Nigeria.

History

School

  • Architecture, Building and Civil Engineering
  • Science

Department

  • Chemistry

Published in

SN Applied Sciences

Volume

3

Issue

2

Publisher

Springer

Version

  • VoR (Version of Record)

Rights holder

© The Authors

Publisher statement

This is an Open Access Article. It is published by Springer under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence (CC BY 4.0). Full details of this licence are available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Acceptance date

2021-01-25

Publication date

2021-02-02

Copyright date

2021

ISSN

2523-3971

eISSN

2523-3971

Language

  • en

Depositor

Prof Graham Sander. Deposit date: 19 April 2021

Article number

257

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