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Real-time energy management for diesel heavy duty hybrid electric vehicles

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journal contribution
posted on 2017-09-15, 16:02 authored by Dezong Zhao, Richard Stobart, Guangyu Dong, Edward WinwardEdward Winward
In this paper, a fuzzy-tuned equivalent consumption minimization strategy (F-ECMS) is proposed as an intelligent real-time energy management solution for a conceptual diesel engine-equipped heavy duty hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). In the HEV, two electric motors/generators are mounted on the turbocharger shaft and engine shaft, respectively, which can improve fuel efficiency by capturing and storing energy from both regenerative braking and otherwise wasted engine exhaust gas. The heavy duty HEV frequently involved in duty cycles characterized by start-stop events, especially in off-road applications, whose dynamics is analyzed in this paper. The on-line optimization problem is formulated as minimizing a cost function in terms of weighted fuel power and electric power. In the cost function, a cost factor is defined for both improving energy transmission efficiency and maintaining the battery energy balance. To deal with the nonexplicit relationship between HEV fuel economy, battery state of charge (SOC), and control variables, the cost factor is fuzzy tuned using expert knowledge and experience. In relation to the fuel economy, the air-fuel ratio is an important factor. An online search for capable optimal variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) vane opening and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve opening is also necessary. Considering the exhaust emissions regulation in diesel engine control, the boundary values of VGT and EGR actuators are identified by offline design-of-experiment tests. An online rolling method is used to implement the multivariable optimization. The proposed method is validated via simulation under two transient driving cycles, with the fuel economy benefits of 4.43% and 6.44% over the nonhybrid mode, respectively. Compared with the telemetry equivalent consumption minimization strategy, the proposed F-ECMS shows better performance in the sustainability of battery SOC under driving conditions with the rapid dynamics often associated with off-road applications.



  • Aeronautical, Automotive, Chemical and Materials Engineering


  • Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering

Published in

IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology






829 - 841


ZHAO, D. ... et al., 2015. Real-time energy management for diesel heavy duty hybrid electric vehicles. IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, 23 (3), pp.829-841.




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