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Relationships between exercise, smoking habit and mortality in more than 100,000 adults

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journal contribution
posted on 02.02.2017, 16:42 authored by Gary O'Donovan, Mark Hamer, Emmanuel Stamatakis
Exercise is associated with reduced risks of all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality; however, the benefits in smokers and ex-smokers are unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between exercise, smoking habit and mortality. Self-reported exercise and smoking, and all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality were assessed in 106,341 adults in the Health Survey for England and the Scottish Health Survey. There were 9149 deaths from all causes, 2839 from CVD, and 2634 from cancer during 999,948 person-years of follow-up. Greater amounts of exercise were associated with decreases and greater amounts of smoking were associated with increases in the risks of mortality from all causes, CVD and cancer. There was no statistically significant evidence of biological interaction; rather, the relative risks of all-cause mortality were additive. In the subgroup of 26,768 ex-smokers, the all-cause mortality hazard ratio was 0.70 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.80), the CVD mortality hazard ratio was 0.71 (0.55, 092), and the cancer mortality hazard ratio was 0.66 (0.52, 0.84) in those who exercised compared to those who did not. In the subgroup of 28,440 smokers, the all-cause mortality hazard ratio was 0.69 (0.57, 0.83), the CVD mortality hazard ratio was 0.66 (0.45, 0.96), and the cancer mortality hazard ratio was 0.69 (0.51, 0.94) in those who exercised compared to those who did not. Given that an outright ban is unlikely, this study is important because it suggests exercise reduces the risks of all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality by around 30% in smokers and ex-smokers.

Funding

O’Donovan and Hamer acknowledge support from the National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care – East Midlands (NIHR CLAHRC – EM), Leicester Clinical Trials Unit, and the NIHR Leicester-Loughborough Diet, Lifestyle and Physical Activity Biomedical Research Unit, which is a partnership between University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Loughborough University and the University of Leicester. Stamatakis is funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) through a Senior Research Fellowship.

History

School

  • Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences

Published in

International Journal of Cancer

Citation

O'DONOVAN, G., HAMER, M. and STAMATAKIS, E., 2017. Relationships between exercise, smoking habit and mortality in more than 100,000 adults. International Journal of Cancer, 140(8), pp.1819-1827.

Publisher

© Wiley

Version

AM (Accepted Manuscript)

Publisher statement

This work is made available according to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) licence. Full details of this licence are available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

Acceptance date

13/01/2017

Publication date

2017

Notes

This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: O'DONOVAN, G., HAMER, M. and STAMATAKIS, E., 2017. Relationships between exercise, smoking habit and mortality in more than 100,000 adults. International Journal of Cancer, 140(8), pp.1819-1827., which has been published in final form at http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.30611. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving

ISSN

1097-0215

Language

en