Reproducibility and inter-observer agreement of Greulich-Pyle protocol to estimate skeletal age among female adolescent soccer players
journal contributionposted on 17.11.2020, 16:28 by Yuri V Faustino-da-Silva, Diogo V Martinho, Manuel J Coelho-e-Silva, João Valente-dos-Santos, Jorge Conde, Tomás G Oliveira, Enio RV Ronque, Ricardo R Agostinete, Rômulo A Fernandes, Lauren Sherar
Background: Skeletal age (SA) is considered the best method of assessing biological maturation. The aim of this study was to determine intra-observer (reproducibility) and inter-observer agreement of SA values obtained via the Greulich-Pyle (GP) method. In addition, the variation in calculated SAs by alternative GP protocols was examined. Methods: The sample was composed of 100 Portuguese female soccer players aged 12.0–16.7 years. SAs were determined using the GP method by two observers (OB1: experience < 100 exams using GP; OB2: experience > 2000 exams using several methods). The radiographs were examined using alternative GP protocols: (wholeGP) the plate was matched to the atlas as an overall approach; (30-boneGP) bone-by-bone inspections of 30-bones; (GPpmb) bone-by-bone inspections of the pre-mature bones only. For the 30-boneGP and GPpmb approaches, SA was calculated via the mean (M) and the median (Md). Results: Reproducibility ranged 82–100% and 88–100% for OB1 and OB2, respectively. Inter-observer agreement (100 participants multiplied by 30 bones) was 92.1%. For specific bones, agreement rates less than 90% were found for scaphoid (81%), medial phalange V (83%), trapezium (84%) and metacarpal V (87%). Differences in wholeGP SAs obtained by the two observers were moderate (d-cohen was 0.79). Mean differences between observers when using bone-by bone SAs were trivial (30-boneGP: d-cohen less than 0.05; GPpmb: d-cohen less than 0.10). The impact of using the mean or the median was negligible, particularly when analyses did not include bones scored as mature. Conclusion: The GP appeared to be a reasonably reproducible method to assess SA and inter-observer agreement was acceptable. There is evidence to support a recommendation of only scoring pre-mature bones during later adolescence. Further research is required to examine whether these findings are consistent in younger girls and in boys.
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Portuguese Institute of Sports and Youth [IPDJ/FCDEF.UC/2017-01]
São Paulo Foundation FAPESP [2018/09230–2; 2019/15959–8]
Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology [SFRH/BD/121441/2016]
- Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences