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Sensitivity analysis of emission models of parcel lockers vs. home delivery based on HBEFA

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journal contribution
posted on 21.06.2021, 13:57 by Maren SchniederMaren Schnieder, Christopher Hinde, Andrew WestAndrew West
Global concerns about the environmental effects (e.g., pollution, land use, noise) of last-mile deliveries are increasing. Parcel lockers are seen as an option to reduce these external effects of last-mile deliveries. The contributions of this paper are threefold: firstly, the research studies simulating the emissions caused by parcel delivery to lockers are summarized. Secondly, a demand model for parcel deliveries in New York City (NYC) is created for 365 days and delivery trips to lockers and homes are optimized for 20 “real-world” scenarios. Thirdly, using the emission factors included in the HandBook Emission Factors for Road Transport (HBEFA) database, the maximum percentage of customers who could pick up a parcel by car from parcel lockers that would result in fewer total emissions (driving customers + walking customers) than if home deliveries were adopted is calculated for various pollutants and scenario assumptions (i.e., street types, temperature, parking duration, level of service and vehicle drivetrain). This paper highlights how small changes in the calibration can significantly change the results and therefore using average values for emission factors or only considering one pollutant like most studies may not be appropriate.

Funding

EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training in Embedded Intelligence

Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council

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Ford Motor company

History

School

  • Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Science

Department

  • Computer Science

Published in

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

Volume

18

Issue

12

Publisher

MDPI

Version

VoR (Version of Record)

Rights holder

© The Authors

Publisher statement

This is an Open Access Article. It is published by MDPI under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence (CC BY 4.0). Full details of this licence are available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Acceptance date

08/06/2021

Publication date

2021-06-11

Copyright date

2021

ISSN

1661-7827

eISSN

1660-4601

Language

en

Depositor

Miss Maren Schnieder. Deposit date: 20 June 2021

Article number

6325