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Service robots, customers and service employees: what can we learn from the academic literature and where are the gaps?

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journal contribution
posted on 28.01.2020, 15:31 by Vinh Nhat Lu, Jochen Wirtz, Werner Kunz, Stefanie Paluch, Thorsten GruberThorsten Gruber, Antje Martins, Paul Patterson
Purpose – Robots are predicted to have a profound impact on the service sector. The emergence of robots has attracted increasing interest from business scholars and practitioners alike. In this article, we undertake a systematic review of the business literature about the impact of service robots on customers and employees with the objective of guiding future research.
Design/methodology/approach – We analyzed the literature on service robots as they relate to customers and employees in business journals listed in the Financial Times top 50 journals plus all journals covered in the cross-disciplinary SERVSIG literature alerts.
Findings – The analysis of the identified studies yielded multiple observations about the impact of service robots on customers (e.g., overarching frameworks on acceptance and usage of service robots; characteristics of service robots and anthropomorphism; and potential for enhanced and deteriorated service experiences) and service employees (e.g., employee benefits such as reduced routine work, enhanced productivity and job satisfaction; potential negative consequences such as loss of autonomy and a range of negative psychological outcomes; opportunities for human-robot collaboration; job insecurity; and robot-related upskilling and development requirements). We also conclude that current research on service robots is fragmented, is largely conceptual in nature, and focused on the initial adoption stage. We feel that more research is needed to build an overarching theory. In addition, more empirical research is needed, especially on the long(er)-term usage service robots on actual behaviors, the well-being, and potential downsides and (ethical) risks for customers and service employees.
Research limitations – Our review focused on the business and service literature. Future work may want to include additional literature streams, including those in computer science, engineering, and information systems.
Originality/value – This article is the first to synthesize the business and service literature on the impact of service robots on customers and employees.



  • Business and Economics


  • Business

Published in

Journal of Service Theory and Practice






361 - 391


Emerald Publishing Limited


AM (Accepted Manuscript)

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© Emerald Publishing Limited

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This paper was accepted for publication in the journal Journal of Service Theory and Practice and the definitive published version is available at

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Prof Thorsten Gruber. Deposit date: 28 January 2020