Loughborough University
BadeaRomero 2013 Source of head injury.pdf (1014.46 kB)

Source of head injury for pedestrians and pedal cyclists: striking vehicle or road?

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journal contribution
posted on 2016-06-29, 13:49 authored by Alexandra Badea-Romero, James Lenard
The potential effectiveness of vehicle-based secondary safety systems for the protection of pedestrians and pedal cyclists is related to the proportion of cases where injury arises by contact with the road or ground rather than with the striking vehicle. A detailed case review of 205 accidents from the UK On-the-Spot study involving vulnerable road users with head injuries or impacts indicated that contact with the road was responsible in 110 cases. The vehicle however was associated with a majority of more serious casualties: 31 (vehicle) compared with 26 (road) at AIS 2+ head injury level and 20 (vehicle) compared with 13 (road) at AIS 3+ level. Further analysis using a multivariate classification model identified several factors that correlated with the source of injury, namely the type of interaction between the striking vehicle and vulnerable road user, the age of the vulnerable road user and the nature of injury.


The On-the-Spot project was funded by the Department for Transport and the Highways Agency. Support for this analysis was also provided by the Madrid Regional Ministry of Education and the European Social Fund through the Research Personnel Support Program of Madrid Autonomous Community.



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Published in

Accident Analysis & Prevention




1140 - 1150


BADEA-ROMERO, A. and LENARD, J., 2013. Source of head injury for pedestrians and pedal cyclists: striking vehicle or road? Accident Analysis and Prevention, 50, pp. 1140 - 1150.


© Elsevier


  • AM (Accepted Manuscript)

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This work is made available according to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) licence. Full details of this licence are available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

Publication date



This paper was accepted for publication in the journal, Accident Analysis and Prevention. The definitive version is available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2012.09.024




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