The effect of nitrate-rich beetroot juice on markers of exercise-induced muscle damage: a systematic review and meta-analysis of human intervention trials
journal contributionposted on 22.06.2021, 11:07 by Louise Jones, Stephen BaileyStephen Bailey, Sam RowlandSam Rowland, Nehal AlsharifNehal Alsharif, Oliver M Shannon, Tom CliffordTom Clifford
This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials examined whether dietary nitrate supplementation attenuates exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and is reported according to the PRISMA guidelines. Medline and SPORTDiscus databases were searched from inception to June 2020. Inclusion criteria were studies in adult humans consuming inorganic nitrate before and after exercise and that measured markers implicated in the etiology of EIMD (muscle function, muscle soreness, inflammation, myocellular protein efflux, oxidative stress, range of motion) <168 h post. The Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias two tool was used to critically appraise the studies; forest plots were generated with random-effects models and standardized mean differences (SMD). Nine studies were included in the systematic review and six in the meta-analysis. All studies were rated to have some concerns for risk of bias. All trials in the meta-analysis provided nitrate as beetroot juice, which accelerated isometric strength recovery 72 h post-exercise (SMD: 0.54, p = 0.01) and countermovement jump performance 24–72 h post-exercise (SMD range: 0.75-1.32, p < 0.03). Pressure pain threshold was greater with beetroot juice 48 (SMD: 0.58, p = 0.03) and 72 h post-exercise (SMD: 0.61, p = 0.02). Beetroot juice had no effect on markers of oxidative stress and creatine kinase (p > 0.05), but c-reactive protein was higher vs. placebo at 48 h post-exercise (SMD: 0.55, p = 0.03). These findings suggest that nitrate-rich beetroot juice may attenuate some markers of EIMD, but more large-scale controlled trials in elite athletes are needed.
- Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences