The effects of initial conditions and takeoff technique on running jumps for height and distance
journal contributionposted on 04.08.2011, 10:51 authored by Cassie Wilson, Mark KingMark King, Fred YeadonFred Yeadon
This study used a subject-specific model with eight segments driven by joint torques for forward dynamics simulation to investigate the effects of initial conditions and takeoff technique on the performance of running jumps for height and distance. The torque activation profiles were varied in order to obtain matching simulations for two jumping performances (one for height and one for distance) by an elite male high jumper, resulting in a simulated peak height of 1.98 m and a simulated horizontal distance of 4.38 m. The peak height reached / horizontal distance travelled by the mass centre for the same corresponding initial conditions were then maximized by varying the activation timings resulting in a peak height of 2.09 m and a horizontal distance of 4.67 m. In a further two optimizations the initial conditions were interchanged giving a peak height of 1.78 m and a horizontal distance of 4.03 m. The four optimized simulations show that even with similar approach speeds the initial conditions at touchdown have a substantial effect on the resulting performance. Whilst the takeoff phase is clearly important, unless the approach phase and the subsequent touchdown conditions are close to optimal then a jumper will be unable to compensate for touchdown condition shortcomings during the short takeoff phase to achieve a performance close to optimum.
- Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences