Loughborough University
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The impact of fuel injection timing and charge dilution rate on low temperature combustion in a compression ignition engine

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posted on 2023-01-23, 09:56 authored by Asish K. Sarangi, Gordon P. McTaggart-Cowan, Colin GarnerColin Garner
Using high charge dilution low temperature combustion (LTC) strategies in a diesel engine offers low emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). These strategies are limited to part-load conditions and involve high levels of charge dilution, typically achieved through the use of recirculated exhaust gases (EGR). The slow response of the gas handling system, compared to load demand and fuelling, can lead to conditions where dilution levels are higher or lower than expected, impacting emissions and combustion stability. This article reports on the sensitivity of high-dilution LTC to variations in EGR rate and fuel injection timing. Impacts on engine efficiency, combustion stability and emissions are assessed in a single-cylinder engine and compared to in-cylinder flame temperatures measured using a borescope-based two-colour pyrometer. The work focuses on low-load conditions (300 kPa gross indicated mean effective pressure) and includes an EGR sweep from conventional diesel mode to high-dilution LTC, and sensitivity studies investigating the effects of variations in charge dilution and fuel injection timing at the high-dilution LTC condition. Key findings from the study include that the peak flame temperature decreased from ~2580 K in conventional diesel combustion with no EGR to 1800 K in LTC with low-NOx, low-soot operation and an EGR rate of 57%. Increasing the EGR to 64% reduced flame temperatures to 1400 K but increased total hydrocarbon (THC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions by 30–50% and increased fuel consumption by 5–7%. Charge dilution was found to have a stronger effect on the combustion process than the diesel injection timing under these LTC conditions. Advancing fuel injection timings at increasing dilution kept combustion instability below 2.5%. Peak in-cylinder temperatures were maintained in the 2000–2100 K range, while THC and CO emissions were controlled by delaying the onset of bulk quenching. Very early injection (earlier than 24 °CA before top-dead-centre) resulted in spray impingement on the piston crown, resulting in degraded efficiency and higher emissions. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of fuel injection timing modification to accommodate variations in charge dilution rates while maintaining low NOx and PM emissions in a diesel engine using low-temperature combustion strategies at part loads.


Diesel Engine Emissions During High EGR Operation

Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council

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Royal Academy of Engineering



  • Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering

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  • VoR (Version of Record)

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This article is an Open Access article published by MDPI and distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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Prof Colin Garner. Deposit date: 20 January 2023

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