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The limits of aerial and contact techniques for producing twist in reverse 1½ somersault dives

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journal contribution
posted on 01.07.2019, 08:40 by Fred Yeadon, Michael HileyMichael Hiley
An angle-driven computer simulation model of aerial movement was used to determine the maximum amount of twist that can be produced in a reverse 1½ somersault dive from a three-metre springboard using various aerial and contact twisting techniques. The segmental inertia parameters of an elite springboard diver were used in the simulations and lower bounds were placed on the durations of arm and hip angle changes based on recorded performances of twisting somersaults. A limiting dive was identified as that producing the largest possible odd number of half twists. Simulations of the limiting dives were found using simulated annealing optimisation to produce the required amounts of somersault, tilt and twist after a flight time of 1.5 s. Additional optimisations were then run to seek solutions with the arms less adducted during the twisting phase. It was found that the upper limits ranged from 3½ to 5½ twists with arm abduction ranges lying between 8° and 23°. Similar results were obtained when the inertia parameters of two other springboard divers were used. It may be concluded that a reverse 1½ somersault dive using aerial asymmetrical arm and hip movements to produce 5½ twists is a realistic possibility. To accomplish this limiting dive the diver needs to be able to coordinate the timing of configurational changes with the progress of the twist with a precision of 10 ms or better.



  • Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences

Published in

Human Movement Science




390 - 398


YEADON, M.R. and HILEY, M.J., 2019. The limits of aerial and contact techniques for producing twist in reverse 1½ somersault dives. Human Movement Science, 66, pp.390-398.


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